Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1770 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Education Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Childhood Essay Did you like this example? Discuss Froebels ideas about Play, and the Environments and Resources which support childrens development. Reflect on the Value of Froebels ideas today. Illustrate your answer with examples from your childhood and any observations you have of children at home or in an early years settings. Introduction Friedrich Froebal (1782-1852) was a German educator most famous for his insight into the importance of the early years of a childs life to their development and later life. Furthermore he also considered that the effect of early life extended beyond the educational achievement into health and society at large. Froebal created kindergartens (childrens gardens) as he perceived a childs growth to be like a plant growing and thriving where the right conditions exist. Within the kindergartens he utilised his principles and practices, including experience of out of doors activities, as an important part of the educational practice. He developed a series of gifts which are designed to be a gift in two senses: firstly in the sense of being given to the child as a gift and secondly as a gift of development. The gifts, which are learning tools, were planned to be age relevant and to encourage development and self-actualisation in the child (Provenzo, 2009) p88-89). The kindergart en and Froebals approach have had a massive impact on early learning and still has relevance today. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Principles of Education Essay Example for College Students" essay for you Create order Froebals influence in the present day The early years of life are vital to the overall development of a child. During this time the emotional parameters are learned together with ways to interact with others and learning through experiences (Sroufe, 1997 p.1-8). In order to maximise the benefit of this time correct stimulation and provision of tools/toys that will enable the child to explore and learn about themselves and the world around them are necessary. Froebal specifically devised his principles for ages 1-7. The Froebal approach involves the principles, pedagogy and environment. The principles take a holistic view of the individual childs progress and recognises their uniqueness, capacity and potential. In addition play is seen to be fundamental and important in the childs development. Part of the learning includes understanding, and working with, the place of humankind in the natural world. Finally the principles recognise the integrity of childhood and of the child as part of a family and of the commu nity (Hermann, 1926 p.201-205). The pedagogy involves having knowledgeable and appropriately qualified professionals to provide skilled informed observation of the children and provide appropriate guidance and teaching. Key to the process of teaching is that is must reach the imaginative, creative, symbolic, linguistic, mathematical, musical, aesthetic, scientific, physical, social, moral, cultural and spiritual aspects of the child. This clearly shows how wide a range of stimulation is required. The childs development is not just the responsibility of the teachers and it is important that the parents/guardians of the child and their educators work harmoniously together to maintain a consistent approach. Play is central to the process and there needs to be a sense of purpose for the child in that play together with an understanding that the child must be viewed holistically as a thinking, feeling person. Encouragement is used rather than punishment to help the child to expand their self-confidence and autonomy. Play can also be used to help the child learn to be able work alone and also with others (Willinsky, 1990 p154-5) . The environment in which the child is placed will also have an important role in their development. Whilst the environment needs to be safe it must also encourage curiosity, stimulation and challenge. Indoor and outdoor activities widen the possible areas of learning and vary the environment providing interest and variety. Froebal also saw working in an environment that is integral to the community to be important in helping the child to be both independent and interdependent and to understand individuality and community and responsibility and freedom. These basic ideals were set out originally by Froebal in his 1826 book The Education of Man. He viewed his own childhood with limited parental attention and remembered his loneliness and using this as his starting point he developed his ideals. He also drew on the knowledge of previous educators when developing his own system of education (Polito, 1996)(p. 161-173). This point may well need to be revisited now with the advent of computers and television programmes specifically aimed at young children. Research needs to be aimed at determining the effects of lack of face to face attention from parents and other adults at home and learning being handed over to mechanical means. There would appear to be correlations between Froebals situation and that of many children today. Lack of interaction with other children and a range of adults limits the possible range of learning situations and may create problems with social interaction later in life although research into this area needs to be conducted to fully understand the effects. Having only the TV or computer for entertainment will also serious limit the childs imagination through lack of personal interaction and physically being involved in the play. This may affect motor skills too through lack of use and a reduced range of movement. In my own childhood I was always encouraged to use inventive play and would create theatre sets with my friends and we would perform little puppet shows for our parents. This type of play involved a variety of concepts; craft work to create the sets, linguistic skills to write the plays, integrated play by playing with others and dexterity to use puppets. Froebals methods are still valid today and can provide children with a wide range of experiences and instil in them curiosity and interest that can be built upon throughout life. Despite how long ago these principles were first developed they are still fully appropriate today perhaps because they relate to the core aspects of development leaving room for the method to be varied as necessary. The gifts such as gift 2 (a set of 3 blocks one square, one sphere and one cylinder) can be moved together with rods and strings to provide multiple possibilities for interactions . These forms introduce the child to geometry and also allow for free expression within individual play. Gift 2 was a form that so embodied Froebals insights that it was used to create a granite construction over his grave (Froebal webn.d.) [online]. There are many toys available today that have similar possibilities and it is important that children are both allowed to play alone with these items but also that parents share play with them too to help with integrated play. One of the key elements within Froebals thinking was the interaction with nature and the natural world. I remember when I was young that at school we had a wild garden at the rear of the playground and we had classes sitting in that area learning about plants and how they grew taking inspiration from what was growing around us. In current settings some schools are able to encourage children in their own school gardens. Whilst this is not appropriate for very small children their interest and excitemen t about the outside world can be begun by allowing them to play outside and introducing them to flora and fauna such as watching spring bulbs coming up. Many parents may also need assistance in this area as they have not had these experiences themselves and thus have difficulty in helping their children to develop in this way (Taylor, 2004 p.163-178) . It is, therefore, important that children have access to a variety of environments in order to have the opportunity to understand and learn about different settings. Froebal identified that children will have their own individual thoughts and understanding of the things around them and by interaction and role play develop their knowledge further. (Puckett, 2004 p. 45-6) . He described play as the work of children (Miller, 2009)(p.46-50). The current economic situation may have an impact on the money available to parents. However, children are able to benefit from fewer more appropriate ready-made toys and the freedom to be come inventive and create their own entertainment. Children will, for instance, often be more interested in the box something comes in and convert the box into a car or tank or dolls house. Such creative play will expand the childs abilities in many different areas (Robson, 2006 p. 39-55) f. The Government scheme Every Child Matters recognises the importance of the early years of life and sets out a range of proposals to support children, parents and all those involved in the care and education of children (H.M. Government, 2003). Through this provision there is a wide range of information and guidance available that can assist in providing good, safe environments and appropriate resources to facilitate learning. This includes such resources as Early Years Learning and Development Literature Review (available as a free download) produced by the Government which contains a wealth of evidence based information to assist in all areas of child development (Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Family, 2009) Conclusion Froebals vision was clear and detailed and still is equally valid today. The way in which it is expressed may have developed further from the original but the basic principles still hold true. The early years are vital to the overall development of a child so it is very important to provide the best environment and resources to facilitate learning. Most children will need to be able to continue with life-long learning to deal with the challenges presented in adult life so stimulating them early on to enjoy learning and creativity prepares them for their futures. Parents, carers and educators need to be working together in order to provide the best environment and resources for children and give them the very best start in life possible. Bibliography Froebal web. (n.d.). Second Gift. Retrieved March 13th, 2012, from Froebal Web an online resource: https://www.froebelweb.org/gifts/second.html H.M. Government. (2003). Every Child Matters. London: Government. Hermann, M. (1926, April). Froebels Kindergarten and What It Means. The Irish Monthly, 54(634), 201-209. Puckett, M. B. (2004). Teaching Young Children An introduction to the early childhood profession. Canada: Delmar Learning. Robson, S. (2006). Developing thinking and understanding in young children. Oxford: Routledge. Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Family. (2009). Early Years Learning and Development Literature Review. London: H.M. Government. Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Emotional Development : The Organization of Emotional Life in the Early Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Taylor, L. C. (2004). Academic Socialization: Understanding Parental Influences on Childrens School-Related Development in the Early Years. Review of General P sychology, 8(3), 163Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"178. Willinsky, J. R. (1990). The Educational Legacy of Romanticism. Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Rene Descartes second meditation is titled, Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind: That it is Better Known than the Body. In his second meditation, Descartes argues that the human mind exists merely by itself without any physical representation in the world. This argument lead to many of his later meditations and allowed him to really build the framework for Western Philosophy. The cogent argument is arguably the most crucial argument, which lead us to our philosophy of the mind. In some respect, Descartes is on the right path to understanding our senses and their relation to the reality of the world. However, he does not assess all of the possibilities in our senses including that of our physical condition, which will explored later. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ second meditation continues from his first by him acknowledging that his senses and body do not exist. Possibly the only thing that he can confirm from his first meditation is that there is no certainty in the world. This leads him t o question where that thought of doubt is actually coming from. Since he has all of these doubts about his physical existence in this world, he wishes to conclude that he is nonexistent. However, to have any of these doubts he must exist to an extent. An example he highlights in his meditation is, Ã¢â¬Å"There is some deceiver or other who is supremely powerful and supremely sly and who is always deliberately deceiving me.Ã¢â¬ (Descartes 2006, 13) However, he realizes to be deceived in the first place, he mustShow MoreRelatedHuman Nature And The Mind974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Nature and The Mind Human nature and the mind have been studied for ages. As humans, we tend to think, feel, and act in certain ways that are often elucidated by nature and evolution. In fields such as Psychology, Philosophy, and Science, human nature and the mind have been extensively studied to develop theories about why humans act, think, and feel that way that we do. It is believed by some that humans are born a certain way by nature. There are three ways that people tend to believe humansRead MoreThe Nature Of The Human Mind1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Cogito argument, Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I amÃ¢â¬ was a statement made by Descartes and is valid. The Second Meditation, Ã¢â¬Å"The nature of the human mind, and how it is better known than the bodyÃ¢â¬ the meditator is determined in his decision to search for uncertainty and to dispose anything that is false and contains the slightest doubt. The meditator supposes that what he sees does not exist, his memory is defective. He claims that , Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ he has no sense, no body, and movements and places are mistaken ideasRead MoreThe Nature of the Human Mind and the Human Body1095 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDescartes talks about the nature of the human mind, and how the mind relates to the human body. With his famous declaration, I am, I exist, Descartes claims that Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ am Ã¢â¬Å"a thinking thingÃ¢â¬ , and therefore Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ exist (17-18). He also argues that the mind is better known than the body. In the Sixth Meditation, he further argues that there must be a clear distinction between mind and body. However, there is surely some connection between these two. In The Treatise on Human Nature, Aquinas argues that theRead MoreUnderstanding The Nature Of The Human Mind Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The human brain is a very complicated part of the human anatomy. Kanwisher states in an inaugural article, Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the nature of the human mind is arguably the greatest intellectual quest of all time. It is also one of the most challenging, requiring the combined insights not only of psychologists, computer scientists, and neuroscientists but of thinkers in nearly every intellectual pursuit, from biology and mathematics to art and anthropologyÃ¢â¬ (2010). The impacts occur whenRead More Hamlet - The Imbalance of the Idealistic Mind and Human Nature1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages- The Imbalance of the Idealistic Mind and Human NatureÃ Ã It is often heard: Nobody is Perfect. This phrase is often used as a rationalization of foolish human mistakes that could have been prevented.Ã However, this statement has a much more profound significance. It contains an important lesson that guides or rather should guide people through life.Ã By admitting that nobody is perfect, the individual demonstrates a deeper understanding of the human nature and inner self. This knowledge isRead MoreEssay on HUMAN BEINGS AND NATURE DURING THE REVOLUTION OF THE MIND3395 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesHUMAN BEINGS AND NATURE DURING THE REVOLUTION OF THE MIND Enlightenment is mans release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is mans inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Dare to Know! Have courage to use your own reason!- that is the motto of enlightenment. -Immanuel Kant, 1784 (1) From theRead MoreThe Human Mind As An Element Of Human Nature By Bernard Le Bovier De Fontenelle1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCuriosity is implanted in the human mind as it is an element of human nature. The thirst for answers and explanations drive the human mind to reason and deliberate in order to discover an understanding of life itself. It emanates inherently within the brain to solve a puzzle and in return, feel a sense of peace. Philosophers and scientists dedicate their entire lives to solve mysterious questions of the unknown. Throughout the development of distinctive theories, they build on each other to solidifyRead MoreThe concept of human nature focuses on the distinctive natural characteristics of humans, namely1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The concept of human nature focuses on the distinctive natural characteristics of humans, namely the ways we feel, think and act, regardless of external forces as well as influences. Within the study and discipline of Philosophy, this fun damental nature of humans and our existence is scrutinized. Philosophy involves a continuous search and lookout for an accurate understanding of the underlying traits of humankind that are deemed to be common among all humans. Starting with the ancient philosophersRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Mont Blanc 912 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPercy Shelley opens his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Mont BlancÃ¢â¬ by noting how imperative the human mind is in regard to nature. The first few lines establish a relation that is essential to all life. With these lines alone, Shelley is pulling from many of the inclinations made by William Wordsworth in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Tintern AbbeyÃ¢â¬ . There is however an expansion made on WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s affections toward nature and its aweing power; while Shelley agrees that there is only a small amount of those who can truly grasp the full intentionRead MoreSocial Determinism And Its Impact On Society Essay1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophers have attempted to define human nature for centuries, each coming up with a radically different idea of what makes us human. These determinists relate outside events or forces as the reason behind our actions. Our cognitive abilities separate us from beasts, however we are highly influential animals unconsciously and subconsciously. Social determinism has distinctly shaped mankind over time with a high degree of influence on our minds. 1. Historical Determinism Fredrick HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MKTG 390, Exam 3 1. Marketers often mislead consumers by misrepresenting marketing research findings in ads and sales presentations. What are six ways in which they do this? (1). We will write a custom essay sample on Mktg 390 Exam 3 Study Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now Incomplete or misleading reporting of survey or product testing results; (2). Reporting only the percentage of survey respondents answering in a given way (for example, Ã¢â¬Å"55% of those surveyed saidÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ) but not the absolute numbers or the sample size; (3). Misleading specification of the competitors tested in reported comparative tests; (4). Using survey techniques that confuse respondents or bias their answers, but not revealing the questions and interview procedure. Sometimes corporate researchers intentionally design the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product testing and marketing research studies so as to generate deceptive findings. (1). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against a comparison during theta is well known not to work well. (2). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against too low a dose of the comparison product, to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"more effectiveÃ¢â¬ , or against too high a dose of the comparison product to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"less toxicÃ¢â¬ . 3). Reporting only that part of a product trial that favors the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug, and hiding the rest of the results. (4). Funding many different studies about the same product but reporting only the one or two that make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product look desirable. 1) Tell lies about risks or limitations 2) Omit discl osing risks or limitations entirely 3) Bury or conceal disclosures among other information 4) Report only % of respondents who answer in a specific way 5) Incomplete reporting of testing results 6) Using survey techniques that confuse respondents 2. Explain the Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ method for determining sample size. In any sample size determination problem, consideration must be given to the number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and about which statistical inferences must be made. For example, a researcher might decide that a sample of 400 is quite adequate overall. However, if male and female respondents must be analyzed separately and the sample is expected to be 50 percent male and 50 percent female, then the expected sample size for each subgroup is only 200. Is this number adequate for making the desired statistical inferences about the characteristics of the two groups? If the results are to be analyzed by both sex and age, the problem gets even more complicated. Assume that it is important to analyze four subgroups of the total sample: men under 35, men 35 and over, women under 35, and women 35 and over. If each group is expected to make up about 25 percent of the total sample, a sample of 400 will include only 100 respondents in each subgroup. The problem is that as sample size gets smaller, sampling error gets larger, and it becomes more difficult to tell whether an observed difference between two groups is a real difference or simply a reflection ofsampling error. Other things being equal, the larger the number of subgroups to be analyzed, the larger the required total sample size. It has been suggested that a sample should provide, at a minimum, 100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. Number of Subgroups to Be Analyzed . SubgroupsÃ¢â¬âthe number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and statistical inferences must be made should be seriously considered. b. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âdependent on the number of subgroups to be analyzedÃ¢â¬âthe more needed the larger the required total sample size. c. Minimum NeedsÃ¢â¬â100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. 3. You need to hire a marketing research firm to work with you on a new product research project. Five factors you might consider in choosing among different research firms are the price they charge, their apparent honesty, their punctuality (ability to meet deadlines on a project), their flexibility, and their capacity to deliver the specified work. What are five other important factors for you to consider in making your choice? Briefly explain why each of these five factors is important. Maintains client confidentiality Provide high-quality output Responsive to the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs High quality-control standards Customer oriented in interaction with clients Keep clients informed throughout a project (1). Maintains client confidentiality (2). Delivers against project specifications (3). Provides high-quality output (4). Is responsive to the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs (5). Has high quality-control standards (6). Is customer oriented in interactions with client (7). Keeps the client informed throughout a project 4. What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen research method and data collection process can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet a deadline for completing a research project? What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s internal management operations can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project? 1) A discussion of questionnaires would not be complete without mentioning their impact on costs and profitability. Factors affecting costs and profits include overestimating, overbidding, incidence rate, roadblocks to completed interviews, and premature interview terminations. (2) Generally research firms do not have design and analyti cal capabilities. This means that their clients may, on occasion, need to seek other providers to meet their fully service needs. It also could decrease the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project. not pretty sure yet) 5. A research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"flexibilityÃ¢â¬ is an important factor for clients to consider in deciding whether to hire that firm. Why is flexibility important and what information would you seek to learn about a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility? Flexibility is important to see how a firm reacts in a crisis-management situation. Unexpected happenings occur often and flexibility shows how a firm will react to these situations. Flexibility also refers to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s control over internal operations, and how they handle personnel issues, such as personnel turnover. . Research management has eight important goals. Three of these are (a) excellent communication, (b) staff development and retention, and (c) cost management. What are four ot her goals in successful research management? Briefly explain these four goals. (1). Organizing the supplier firm: large suppliers have separate departments for sampling, questionnaire programming, field, coding, tabulation, statistics, and sales? Even the client service staff may be separate from those who manage projects and write questionnaires and reports. Each of these departments has a head who is expert in the functions of that department and manages work assignments within the department. So in response to problems like this, some companies are organizing by teams. (2). Data Quality Management: this is the most important objective of the research management. Marketing research managers can help assure high-quality data by having policies and procedures in place to minimize source of error. Marketing researchers must not only attempt to minimize error, but must also do a better job of explaining the term margin error. Also, managers must have in place procedures to ensure the careful proofing of all text, chart, and graphs in written reports and other communications provided to the clients. (3). Time management:it is very important becasue clients often have a specified time schedule that they must meet. Two problems that can play havoc with time schedules are inaccuracies in estimates of the incidence rate and the interview length. The project manager must have early information regarding whether or not a project can be completed on time. Time management requires that systems be put in place to inform management as to whether or not the project is on schedule. (4). Client Profitability Management: while marketing research departments may be able to focus on doing Ã¢â¬Å"on-demandÃ¢â¬ projects for internal clients, marketing research suppliers have to think about profitability. Customer Research Incorporated (CRI) divided its clients into four categories based on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value to CRIÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line. CRI spent too much time and too many valuable employee resources on too many unprofitable customers. (5). Outsourcing:One way that research firms are cutting costs is outsourcing. The term outsourcing as used in this text is having personnel in another country perform some, or all, of the functions involved in a marketing research project. When a research firm sets up a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, it is called captive outsourcing. Simple outsourcing is where a domestic research company enters into a relationship with a foreign company that provides a variety of marketing research functions. For example, Cross-Tab Services of Mumbai, India, offers online survey programming, data processing, data analysis, and other services. Other services that are beginning to be outsourced are data management and panel management. A number of issues need to be considered when one is outsourcing, as shown in Exhibit 15. 10. India is most likely the world leader in marketing research outsourcing firms. Over 110 marketing research outsourcing firms in India (noncaptive) employ over 9,000 people. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues Research management has seven important goals beyond excellent communication: building an effective organization, assurance of data quality, adherence to time schedules, cost control, client profitability management, and staff management and development. ) Building an effective organizationÃ¢â¬âhaving an organization in which people work in their areas of highest strength (technical people doing tech stuff and charismatic people doing customer service activities) 2) Assurance of data qualityÃ¢â¬âto ensure the integrity of the data produced 3) Adherence to time schedules (time management)Ã¢â¬â keep the project on schedule with specific time schedules the client has specified 4) Client profitability managementÃ¢â¬âprojects for clients are a priority but the bottom line is the most important; make sure the clients youÃ¢â¬â¢re serving are maximizing profitability and not stretching yourself too thin. . To retain key staff members, a research firm can help them develop their professional skills and meet their goals. What are three specific things a research supply firm can do to help retain key marketing research staff members, beyond paying them well? a. Conduct regular performance reviews that give continuing feedback on a job well doneÃ¢â¬âor offer ways to improve. Many staff members think their bosses play favorites during performance reviews. So department heads try to use clear performance criteria for each position and offer objective appraisals for everyone. . Offer public recognition for great work. Some groups mention great work during staff meetings; post c lient comments on a Ã¢â¬Å"wall of fameÃ¢â¬ in the department; have bosses send personal letters to staff members at home, praising their work; hold pizza parties for teams that have performed Ã¢â¬Å"above and beyondÃ¢â¬ ; or simply have the head of the department stop by a staff memberÃ¢â¬â¢s office to offer congratulations and thanks. c. Give differential pay raises that recognize superior performance. While across theboard, uniform pay increases are often used (because they are the easiest to administer), they do not recognize the high performersÃ¢â¬âand they allow the lower performers to believe they are doing adequate work. d. Vary the work. In order to keep everyone interested, some research groups identify one-off projects and then allow staff members to volunteer for them. Examples of special projects could include a project that will feed into the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plans, formation of a high-visibility cross-functional team, or a project that uses a new technique or addresses an unusually interesting topic. 8. What is Ã¢â¬Å"stratified samplingÃ¢â¬ ? What are the three steps involved in implementing a stratified sample? A stratified sampling procedure divides a population by a specific strata (some demographic characteristic pertinent to the population of interest) then people are chosen randomly within each stratum, usually proportionate to the total number of people in each stratum. Stratified samples are probability samples that are distinguished by the following procedural steps: (1). The original, or parent, population is divided into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets (for example, male and female). (2). Simple random samples of elements from the two or more subsets are chosen independently of each other. Three steps are involved in implementing a properly stratified sample: (1). Identify salient (important) demographic or classification factors. Factors that are correlated with the behavior of interest. For example, there may be reason to believe that men and women have different average consumption rates of a particular product. To use gender as a basis for meaningful stratifi cation, the researcher must be able to show with actual data that there are significant differences in the consumption levels of men and women. In this manner, various salient factors are identifi ed. Research indicates that, as a general rule, after the six most important factors have been identifi ed, the identification of additional salient factors adds little in the way of increased sampling efficiency. (2). Determine what proportions of the population fall into the various subgroups under each stratum (for example, if gender has been determined to be a salient factor, determine what proportion of the population is male and what proportion is female). Using these proportions, the researcher can determine how many respondents are required from each subgroup. However, before a final determination is made, a decision must be made as to whether to use proportional allocation or disproportional, or optimal, allocation. (3). Select separate simple random samples from each stratum. This process is implemented somewhat differently than traditional simple random sampling. Assume that the stratified sampling plan requires that 240 women and 160 men be interviewed. The researcher will sample from the total population and keep track of the number of men and women interviewed. At some point in the process, when 240 women and 127 men have been interviewed, the researcher will interview only men until the target of 160 men is reached. In this manner, the process generates a sample in which the proportion of men and women conforms to the allocation scheme derived in step 2. Stratified samples are not used as often as one might expect in marketing research. The reason is that the information necessary to properly stratify the sample is usually not available in advance. Stratification cannot be based on guesses or hunches but must be based on hard data regarding the characteristics of the population and the relationship between these characteristics and the behavior under investigation. Stratified samples are frequently used in political polling and media audience research. In those areas, the researcher is more likely to have the information necessary to implement the stratification process. 9. The American Marketing AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Professional Ethics cites data collection principles that all marketing research firms should follow. One is Ã¢â¬Å"treat the respondent with respect and do not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or attitude on any issue through direct or indirect attempts, including the framing of questions. Ã¢â¬ What are six other data collection principles that are cited in the AMA Code? Explain each of these briefly. (2). will conduct themselves in a professional manner and ensure privacy and confidentiality. (3). will ensure that all formulas used during bidding and reporting during the data collection process conform with the MRA/Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO) Incidence Guidelines. 4). will make factually correct statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made during the interview to respondents, whether verbal or written (5). will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate in the research when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without the use of their name or address (e. g. , because of the size of the populatio n being sampled). (6). will not use information to identify respondents without the permission of the respondent except to those who check the data or are involved in processing the data. If such permission is given, the interviewer must record it, or a respondent must do so, during all Internet studies, at the time the permission is secured. (7). will adhere to and follow these principles when conducting online research: Ã ¦ RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to anonymity must be safeguarded. Ã ¦ Unsolicited e-mail must not be sent to those requesting not to receive any further e-mail. Ã ¦ Researchers interviewing minors must adhere to the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Ã ¦ Before collecting, using, or disclosing personal information from a child, the researcher must obtain verifiable parental consent from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent. 8). for Internet research, will not use any data in any way contrary to the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s published privacy statement without permission from the respondent. (9). will respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to cooperate at any stage of the study and will not use any procedure or technique to coerce or imply that cooperation is obligatory. (10)will obtain and document respondent consent when it is known that the personally identifiable information of the respondent may be passed by audio, video, or Interactive Voice Response to a third party for legal or other purposes. 11). will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing children 13 years of age or younger. Prior to obtaining permission, the interviewer should divulge the subject matter, length of interview, and other special tasks that may be required of the respondent. (12). will ensure that all interviewers comply with any laws or regulations that may be applicable when contacting or communicating to any minor (18 years old or younger) regardless of the technology or methodology utilized. (13). ill not reveal any information that could be used to identify clients without their written authorization. (14). will ensure that companies, their employees, and subcontractors involved in the data collection process adhere to reasonable precautions so that multiple surveys are not conducted at the same time with a specific respondent without explicit permission from the sponsoring company or companies. (15). will consider all research materials provided by the client or generated as a result of materials provided by the client to be the property of the client. These materials will not be disseminated or disposed of without the verbal or written permission of the client. (16). will, as time and availability permit, give their client the opportunity to monitor studies in progress to ensure research quality. (17). will not represent a nonresearch activity to be opinion and marketing research, such as: Ã ¦ the compilation of lists, registers, or data banks of names and addresses for any nonresearch purposes (e. g. , canvassing or fund raising). Ã ¦ industrial, commercial, or any other form of espionage. Ã ¦ the acquisition of information for use by credit rating services or similar organizations. sales or promotional approaches to the respondent. Ã ¦ the collection of debts. Companies engaged in data collection: (1) Will treat the respondent and the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions or beliefs with respect, and not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or belief on any issue through direct or indirect behavior, including the framing of questi ons or verbal or non-verbal reactions to what a respondent says. (2) Will ensure privacy and confidentiality (3) Will ensure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. , purpose, tasks, type of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. (4) Will make truthful statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents, verbal or written (5) Will explain, promise and respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer at any stage of the study, and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. (6) Will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using name or address (e. . , a small population of respondents). (7) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. (8) Will disclose the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject matter, length of interview, and special tasks required of before participation begins, to parents and guardians of children under 13. (9) Will not misrepresent as opinion research or marketing research any non-research activity. (10)Will not disclose to respondents any information that could identify a client without the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. ) Ensure privacy and confidentiality. 2) Assure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. g. , purpose, tasks, types of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. 3) Make truthful statements to secure cooperation and honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents verbal or written. 4) Explain and promise respect of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer any stage of the study and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. ) Give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using their name or address. 6) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. 10. Snowball sampling is one method for doing Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . Explain how and why Ã¢â¬Å"snowball samplingÃ¢â¬ is done. How? In snowball samples, sampling procedures are used to select additional respondents on the basis of referrals from initial respondents. This procedure is used to sample from low-incidence or rare populationsÃ¢â¬âthat is, populations that make up a very small percentage of the total population. The costs of finding members of these rare populations may be so great that the researcher is forced to use a technique such as snowball sampling. For example, suppose an insurance company needed to obtain a national sample of individuals who have switched from the indemnity form of healthcare coverage to a health maintenance organization in the past 6 months. It would be necessary to sample a very large number of consumers to identify 1,000 that fall into this population. It would be far more economical to obtain an initial sample of 200 people from the population of interest and have each of them provide the names of an average of four other people to complete the sample of 1,000. Why? The main advantage of snowball sampling is a dramatic reduction in search costs. However, this advantage comes at the expense of sample quality. The total sample is likely to be biased because the individuals whose names were obtained from those sampled in the initial phase are likely to be very similar to those initially sampled. As a result, the sample may not be a good cross section of the total population. There is general agreement that some limits should be placed on the number of respondents obtained through referrals, although there are no specific rules regarding what these limits should be. This approach may also be hampered by the fact that respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. Snowball SamplingÃ¢â¬âinvolves the selection of additional respondents on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents. a. Main advantageÃ¢â¬â the dramatic reduction in search costs. b. DisadvantageÃ¢â¬âreduction in sample quality. Snowball sampling procedures ask respondents to recommend other individuals who share the characteristic of interest. If you are looking for individuals who have been a victim of a particular crime, and you know there is a victim support network in the area, you might use this technique. There may be no other way to obtain the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s names. The danger associated with this type of sample is, of course, the bias that may occur because of the method. The sample may not be a good cross section, also respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. 1. What are the first five steps in the questionnaire design process? Explain briefly what each step involves. 1. Determine survey objectives, resources, and constraints: know objective and information want to get out of the survey 2. Determine the data collection method: Way to gather info such as internet, phone ectÃ¢â¬ ¦ 3. Determine the question response format: open ended, yes/n o, multiple choice (check al that apply to you, age/ethnicity questions), scaled-response questions 4. Decide on the question wording: clear, avoids bias, willingness to answer 5. Establish questionnaire flow and layout: screening questions to find people qualified for the survey, first question brings in interest, capitalize important things Step 1: Determine Survey Objectives, Resources, and Constraints The research process often begins when a marketing manager, brand manager, or new product development specialist has a need for decision-making information that is not available. a. Survey objectivesÃ¢â¬âshould be spelled out as clearly and precise as possible, as well as the available resources and budget and other constraints. Step 2: Determine the Data-Collection Method Given the variety of ways in which survey data can be gathered, such as via the Internet, telephone, mail, or self-administration, the research method will have an impact on questionnaire design. An in-person interview in a mall will have constraints (such as a time limitation) not encountered with an Internet questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire must be explicit and is usually rather short; because no interviewer will be present, respondents will not have the opportunity to clarify a question. A telephone interview may require a rich verbal description of a concept to make certain the respondent understands the idea being discussed. In contrast, an Internet survey can show the respondent a picture or video or demonstrate a concept. Step 3: Determine the Question Response Format Once the data-collection method has been determined, a decision must be made regarding the types of questions to be used in the survey. Three major types of questions are used in marketing research: open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response questions. Step 4: Decide on the the Question Wording 1). Make Sure the Wording Is Clear a. The questions must be stated so that it means the same thing to all respondents. b. Clarity is the goal. The questionnaire designer must use terminology native to the target respondent group and not use research jargon. It should custom-tailor the wording to the target respondent group. c. State the purpose of the survey. d. Avoid double-barreled questionsÃ¢â¬âtwo q uestions in one. (2). Avoid Biasing the Respondent a. Leading questions. b. Biased wording of the question. c. Sponsor identification early in the interviewing process. (3). Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ability to Answer the Questions a. A respondent may have never acquired the information to answer the question. b. A respondent may have forgotten details. c. To avoid this problem, keep the referenced time periods short. (4). Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Willingness to Answer the Question. a. Embarrassing topic must be phrased in a careful manner to minimize measurement error. b. Ask the question in the third person. c. Ask about Ã¢â¬Å"most peopleÃ¢â¬ . d. Using counterbiasing statements techniqueÃ¢â¬âstate that the behavior or attitude is not unusual prior to asking the question. Step 5: Establish Questionnaire Flow and Layout (1). Use Screening Questions to Identify Qualified Respondents (2). Begin with a Question That Gets the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Interest (3). Ask General Questions First (4). Ask Questions That Require Ã¢â¬Å"WorkÃ¢â¬ in the Middle (5). Insert Ã¢â¬Å"PromptersÃ¢â¬ at Strategic Points (6). Position Sensitive, Threatening, and Demographic Questions at the End (7). Allow Plenty of Space for Open-Ended Responses (8). Put Instructions in Capital Letters (9). Use a Proper Introduction and Closing 12. Step 6 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluate the questionnaireÃ¢â¬ . What are three key issues in evaluating a draft of the questionnaire? (1) Is the Question Necessary? Perhaps the most important criterion for this phase of questionnaire development is the necessity for a given question. Sometimes researchers and brand managers want to ask questions because Ã¢â¬Å"they were on the last survey we did like thisÃ¢â¬ or because Ã¢â¬Å"it would be nice to know. Ã¢â¬ Excessive numbers of demographic questions are very common. Asking for education data, numbers of children in multiple age categories, and extensive demographics on the spouse simply is not warranted by the nature of many studies. Each question must serve a purpose. Unless it is a screener, an interest generator, or a required transition, it must be directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey. Any question that fails to satisfy at least one of these criteria should be omitted. (2) Is the Questionnaire Too Long? At this point, the researcher should role-play the survey, with volunteers acting as respondents. Although there is no magic number of interactions, the length of time it takes to complete the questionnaire should be averaged over a minimum of five trials. Any questionnaire to be administered in a mall or over the telephone should be a candidate for cutting if it averages longer than 20 minutes. Sometimes mall-intercept interviews can run slightly longer if an incentive is provided to the respondent. Most Internet surveys should take less than 15 minutes to complete. Common incentives are movie tickets, pen and pencil sets, and cash or checks. The use of incentives often actually lowers survey costs because response rates increase and terminations during the interview decrease. If checks are given out instead of cash, the canceled checks can be used to create a list of survey participants for follow-up purposes. A technique that can reduce the length of questionnaires is called a split-questionnaire design. It can be used when the questionnaire is long and the sample size is large. The questionnaire is split into one core component (such as demographics, usage patterns, and psychographics) and a number of subcomponents. Respondents complete the core component plus a randomly assigned subcomponent. (3) Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? The researcher must make certain that the questionnaire contains sufficient numbers and types of questions to meet the decision-making needs of management. A suggested procedure is to carefully review the written objectives for the research project and then write each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. For example, question 1 applies to objective 3, question 2 to objective 2, and so forth. If a question cannot be tied to an objective, the researcher should determine whether the list of objectives is complete. If the list is complete, the question should be omitted. If the researcher finds an objective with no questions listed beside it, appropriate questions should be added. Tips for writing a good questionnaire are provided in the Practicing Marketing Research feature on page 263. (1). Is the Question Necessary? a. Each question must serve a purpose. b. Is it directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey? (2). Is the Questionnaire Too Long? a. Mall or telephone administered questionnaires should be limited to 20 minutes. b. Internet surveys should be less than 15 minutes. . Incentives can lower the cost of surveys because the response rates increase and terminations decrease. (3). Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? a. Review the written objectives for the research projectÃ¢â¬âwrite each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. b. If the question cannot be t ied to an objectiveÃ¢â¬âdetermine if the list of objectives is complete. If complete, eliminate the question. c. If an objective has no questions, then appropriate questions should be added. 13. Compare Ã¢â¬Å"probability samplingÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . What is probability sampling? What is non-probability sampling? Why is non-probability sampling used more often than probability sampling in actual marketing research projects? Probability samples are selected in such a way that every element of the population has a known, nonzero likelihood of selection. Simple random sampling is the best known and most widely used probability sampling method. With probability sampling, the researcher must closely adhere to precise selection procedures that avoid arbitrary or biased selection of sample elements. When these procedures are followed strictly, the laws of probability hold, allowing calculation of the extent to which a sample value can be expected to differ from a population value. This difference is referred to as sampling error. The debate continues regarding whether online panels produce probability samples. Nonprobability samples are those in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a nonrandom manner. Nonrandomness results when population elements are selected on the basis of convenienceÃ¢â¬âbecause they are easy or inexpensive to reach. Purposeful nonrandomness occurs when a sampling plan systematically excludes or over represents certain subsets of the population. For example, if a sample designed to solicit the opinions of all women over the age of 18 were based on a telephone survey conducted during the day on weekdays, it would systematically exclude working women. See the Practicing Marketing Research feature above. On the other hand, probability samples have a number of disadvantages, the most important of which is that they are usually more expensive than nonprobability samples of the same size. The rules for selection increase interviewing costs and professional time spent in designing and executing the sample design. Non-probability sampling VS Probability sampling Disadvantages of Probability Samples a) More expensive than nonprobability samples b) Take more time and money to design and execute. Advantages of Nonprobability Samples a) Cost less than probability samples. b) Can be conducted more quickly than probability samples. c) Are reasonably representative if executed in a reasonable manner. , 14. Step 8 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Pretest and ReviseÃ¢â¬ . a) How do you do a pretest a first-draft of a questionnaire? (b) Under what conditions can this step be skipped? (a) A pretest is done by the interviewers who will be working on the job and is administered to target respondents for the study. The pretest should be conducted in the same mode as the final interview. In a pretest, researchers look for misinterpretations by respondents, poor skip pat terns, additional alternatives for pre-coded and closed-ended questions and general respondent reaction to the interview. Interviewers want find out if respondents were confused at all during the interview. b) There are NO reasons to not pre-test! No survey should be conducted without a pretest. 15. In a well-organized questionnaire, there is a logical flow of questions. The first questions are called Ã¢â¬Å"ScreenersÃ¢â¬ . After Screeners are asked, what types of questions are asked in the next four sections of the questionnaire, in correct order? 16. In class and a handout, we discussed a method called Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ that companies can use to understand how people may react to a complex innovative product (e. g. , new self-driving car; new medical diagnostic system) when it is marketed sometime in the future. i) Explain the goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method; (ii) Explain how to do the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method Ã¢â¬â what are its key features? (i) The goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method (1)Test how exposure to an overall set of product-related messages influences consumer attitude toward the product, especially when test ads are mingled with non-marketing messages from other sources, eg, news articles, journals, competing ads, etc (2)Test how exposure to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall set of marketing materials affect consumers beliefs and impressions. For example, does exposure to the assorted marketing messages for a product launch (TV ads, magazine ads; mailed brochures; point-of Ã¢â¬âpurchase information; sales presentations; packaging) confuse consumers or mislead them about some aspect of the product, eg, risks, limitations, the key usage benefits? (ii)How: IA places consumers in a Ã¢â¬Å"virtualÃ¢â¬ learning and decision making environment, and stimulates (via computer) a set of information sources potentially available to a consumer, including advertising; news articles; showroom or store visits; and world-of-mouth opinions from other consumers and product experts. The method Ã¢â¬Å"acceleratesÃ¢â¬ the flows of information consumers may encounter over a long time period in the future. Key features: (1) Realistic simulation of a complex media and message environment that consumers may face in the future when deciding about a new innovation, (2) Vivid and concrete renditions of the messages and the message-exposure Stimulations (3) Uses computer-interactive technology to decrease participant fatigue. (4) Respondent have access to a full assortment of information. They can choose which to look at or ignore; the order of their information search; the time they spend on the sources of information they consult (5) But, the marketer controls the overall time available for the search, as incentive to consumers to set priorities as they search (6) Can do Ã¢â¬Å"after-only with control groupÃ¢â¬ experiments that vary product features. Product-related marketing materials, types of messages from non-marketing sources 17. In addition to Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"traditional statistical methodsÃ¢â¬ , what are (1). Budget Available The sample size for a project is often determined by the budget available. The budget brand manager have, after deducting of other project cost, the amount remaining determines the size of the sample that can be surveyed. If the dollars available will not produced an adequate sample size, then management must make a decision:either additional funds must be found or the project should be canceled. Financial constrains challenge the researcher to develop research designs that will generate data of adequate quality for decision making purchases at low cost. This approaches forces the researcher to explore alternative data-collection approaches and to carefully consider the value of information in relations to its cost. (2). Rule of Thumb Potential clients may specify in the RFP about the sample size they want. Sometimes, this is number based on desired sampling error. In other cases, it is based on nothing more than past experience. The justification for the specific sample size may boil down to a Ã¢â¬Å"gut feelingÃ¢â¬ that a particular sample size is necessary or appropriate. If the researcher determine that the sample size requested is not adequate to support the objectives of the proposed research, then she or he has a professional responsibility to present arguement for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. (1). Budget Available a. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âfor a project often is determined by the budget available. Sample size, therefore, is often determined backward. b. Alternative Data Collection ApproachesÃ¢â¬âbudget available approach forces the research to explore and consider the value of information in relation to its cost. 2). Rules of Thumb a. Potential clients may specify they want a sample of a specific size. b. Sometimes based on some consideration of sampling error, sometimes based on past experience and sample sizes used for similar studies in the past. c. If that the sample size requested is not adequate, the researcher has a professional responsibility to present arguments for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. 18. Why is it so important for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality about all aspects of its clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ projects? Why is it sometimes difficult for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality? Because participants of research projects share valuable and sometimes sensitive information with the researcher, and they trust that the researcher will ensure that their identity is protected. It is imperative that no one but the researchers coordinating and conducting the interviews or focus groups knows the names of participants. No one other than the researchers should have access to the responses from individual participants. It is critical that no one but the necessary researchers have the ability to match the names of individuals to their responses. It is hard to maintain confidentiality because sometimes companies share information about customers with partners and affiliates. Also, some companies sell information they have gathered on customers to outside companies. 19. What steps should be taken to assure that the response data from each respondent in a survey are kept confidential? (1) Develop a code sheet, listing the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ names with a code next to each name, assigned by the researcher, which uniquely identifies each respondent. This code, not the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s name, will be written on the form for talking interview notes or the questionnaire itself. (2) Keep the code sheet in a secure location so that people other than the researchers do not have access to it. (3) Keep participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses in a secure location, separate from the code sheet, to protect the identity of individuals participating in study. (4)Researchers should be trained to explain these procedures for maintaining confidentiality to all respondents before they start participation. 20. In deciding whether or not to hire a specific marketing research firm, why it is important to learn about the other new clients and projects that the firm has taken on recently? It is important to know if we are their prior client compared to other clients, so we could have the priority on technical team, key personals and other important resources to accomplish the project. Besides that, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important because if a client is a big account for the firm, will the firm be likely to ask difficult or complex questions and not be a Ã¢â¬Å"yes-man? And if the client is small, will they still be valuable to the firm or will they be ignored? Also, if a firm has had a high client turnover rate, both recent gains and losses, this could be a red flag. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost a lot of clients it could signal poor work or management, but on the flip side if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained a lot, it may mean the firm will pay less attention to each individual client. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to look at p ast projects as well to determine if a firm can actually do the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s work. How to cite Mktg 390 Exam 3 Study Guide, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Influences On Government Our governmental system is influenced by a number of "inputs" and factors that shape the outcome of political movements and decisions. These "inputs" include public pinions, political parties, interest groups, and the influence of mass media. They influence our government directly as well as indirectly. Not to mention, that our government also uses these "inputs" for its own benefit. The main issue that forms governmental decisions in a democracy is of course the public opinion. In order to be eligible to run for an office in our governmental system, one must be elected by the people or a representative thereof, and to achieve this task one must listen to and obey the public's opinion. Therefore, the theory of democracy is most purely applied through election on behalf of the public opinion. Another important factor in our system of government are of course our political parties. Parties enable the citizen living in a democratic society to establish a connection to governmental action and lead policy-making to his benefit or liking. Furthermore, a citizen can participate in society quite easily, since 2 party platforms which clearly indicate a parties goals and preferences. However, this democratic ideal does not always prevail. Parties can be influenced or even manipulated by people who contribute great amounts of funds to the party to have their own personal political wishes fulfilled which do not necessarily have to benefit society as a whole (power elite theory). Interest groups account for an additional 'mover' in Washington. This political devise provides a supplement to our citizens broad area of interests. Since the American People can only choose between two main parties. Therefore, certain issues might not come to political debate. Interest groups fill this gap and thus withhold the theory of democracy. Yet, 'Big Business' has also found this devise to help fulfill its political needs. Once again politics is influenced by a small amount of citizens, that own about two thirds of our nations worth. Interest groups have grown more influential over the years and created a pluralistic society, in which people's everyday issues and interests are brought to the attention of our governmental system. However, since there is a rapid growth in interest groups and political action committees, the competition among groups might become so extensive that demands on politicians might be to high and hence, our system would come to a halt or gridlock and nothing would be achieved anymore. Last but not least mass media provide another 'input' to our system of government. The media provide the people with information they need to be able 3 to make sensible political decisions. In formation on election debates current poles help the public to stay in touch with the policy-makers in Washington.
Friday, March 20, 2020
Science Fiction Book Report Essays - Frankenstein, Free Essays Science Fiction Book Report In the story Frankenstein, written by the author Mary Shelley, Victor Frankenstein decided that wanted to create a being out of people that were already dead. He believed that he could bring people back from the grave. Playing with nature in such a way would make him play the role of God. With Victor Frankenstein feeling that he had no true friends, the only relief he had of expressing his feeling was through letters to Elizabeth. Elizabeth was not Victors true sister but he loved her very dearly, making sure to always write her when ever he had the chance. Yet, when Victor left something strange came over him. Already being interested in subjects such as natural philosophy and chemistry, he fall upon the question of how to bring someone back to life. He became very involved in this project and worked on it for days on end. The project had to do with defying the laws of nature. Victor believe wholeheartedly that he could bring the dead back to life. He felt that the dead were not ready to die and they were just resting. Victor became so self absorbed into his project that he seem to forget all that was important to him. He even disengaged himself from all the people he loved in his life. People like his father, Elizabeth, and other loved ones. Victor began to write less and less. Yet, it was not until Elizabeth got a discouraged letter from Victor, did his love ones start to wary about him. Though, the letter was full of words, it gave no relief to Elizabeth, because the words meant nothing to her. However, they meant a lot to Victor, because he felt the project in which he was working on was so important to him, in his own delirious world. He felt that with bring people back to life he would not only better man kind, but also establish a name for himself. With this type of attitude, he did not even take into consideration that he might make the world a worse place. This part in the story shows the irony. The irony being that Victor Frankenstein feels he is doing something good for the world, but we later find out just how bad this creation could be. Though Elizabeth wanted to pull Victor away from his project, he was unwilling to leave until it is complete. After Victor found how to bring his creation to life, he also found out just how evil his invention could be. His creation was strong and evil. With the escape of the monster, Victor Frankenstein had to come to realization of what his creation might do and the consequences that Frankenstein, himself would have to deal with. With the murder of his brother weighing the guilt on his shoulders, Frankenstein know he had to do something. So he went looking for the monster. Upon their meeting each other, the monster confessed that when he found out that William as Victors brother he killed him. He then proceeded to tell him that he killed his brother due to the fact that he was trying to get back at his creator for bringing him to life and allowing him to be an out cast in society. This killing prove to Victor that the monster did not know right from wrong or how to cope with his anger. This aggression made Frankenstein's creation violent. While talking with the monster, the monster demanded from Frankenstein to create a partner that he could be able to live with away for society. At first, agreeing to the demand, but later realized that if his first creation came out to be a killer so could the second one. With this in mind Frankenstein revoked his agreement and decided against creating another monster. Though, knowing that this decision could be dangerous to him and his loved ones. Yet, he had to think of what was truly best for man kind. Bringing the dead to life or saving the lives of the living. Another peace of irony in this story is, just like Victor Frankenstein who had no friends and was different from the rest of society so was the monster. Also, when Frankenstein decided to play God and bring the dead to life, his creation took on the same role when he decided to take away some ones life. All
Wednesday, March 4, 2020
Female Spies in World War I and World War II While almost every nation yet prohibits women in combat, a long history of female involvement in warfare reaches all the way back to ancient times. Extensive documentation exists covering the role of women working undercover or otherwise involved in intelligence work in each of the two world wars. World War I Mata Hari If asked to name a female spy, most people would probably be able to cite Mata Hari of World War I fame. Real name Margaretha Geertruida Zelle McLeod, the woman the world would come to know as Mata Hari was born in the Netherlands. Her cover was that of an exotic dancer from India. While there is little doubt regarding the legitimacy of Mata Haris life as a stripper and sometimes-prostitute, some controversy surrounds whether she was ever actually a spy. Famous as she was if Mata Hari was a spy, she was fairly inept at it. She was caught following contact with an informant, tried and executed as a spy by France. It later came to light that her accuser was, himself, a German spy, effectively casting doubt on her true role in World War I espionage. Edith Cavell Another famous spy from World War I was also executed as a spy. Edith Cavell was born in England, growing up to become a nurse by profession. When World War I erupted, she was working in a nursing school in Belgium. Although she was not a spy as we generally view them, Edith worked undercover to help transport soldiers from France, England, and Belgium to escape from the Germans. She worked as matron of a hospital and, while doing so, helped at least 200 soldiers to escape. When the Germans realized Cavells role in what was happening, she was put on trial for harboring foreign soldiers rather than espionage, and convicted in two days. She was killed by a firing squad in October of 1915 and buried near the execution site despite appeals from the United States and Spain to return her body to her homeland. After the war, her body was transported back to England. Edith Cavell was finally buried in her native land, following a Westminster Abbey service presided by King George V of England. A statue in her honor was erected in St. Martins Park bearing the simple but apt epitaph, Humanity, Fortitude, Devotion, Sacrifice. The statue also carries the quote she gave to the priest who gave her communion the night before her death, Patriotism is not enough, I must have no hatred or bitterness toward anyone. Edith Cavell had, in her lifetime, cared for anyone in need regardless of which side of the war they fought out of religious conviction. She died as valiantly and honorably as she lived. World War II Two main oversight organizations were responsible for intelligence activities in World War II for the Allies. These were the British SOE, or Special Operations Executive, and the American OSS, or Office of Strategic Services. The SOE was active in virtually every occupied country in Europe along with native operatives in enemy countries, aiding resistance groups and monitoring enemy activity. The American counterpart, the OSS, overlapped some of the SOE operations and also had operatives in the Pacific theater. In addition to traditional spies, these organizations employed many ordinary men and women to covertly provide information on strategic locations and activities while leading apparently normal lives. The OSS eventually became what is now known as the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), Americas official spy agency. Virginia Hall An American heroine,Ã Virginia Hall came from Baltimore, Maryland. From a privileged family, Hall attended fine schools and colleges and wanted a career as a diplomat. Her aspirations were thwarted in 1932 when she lost part of her leg in a hunting accident and had to use a wooden prosthesis. Having resigned from the State Department in 1939, Hall was in Paris at the start of World War II. She worked on an ambulance corps until the Henri Philippe Petain-led Vichy government took over, at which point she moved to England, volunteering for the newly-founded SOE. SOE training completed, she was returned to Vichy-controlled France where she supported the Resistance until complete Nazi takeover. She escaped on foot to Spain through the mountains, continuing her work for the SOE there until 1944, when she joined the OSS and asked to return to France. Returned to France, Hall continued to help the underground Resistance by, among other things, providing maps to Allied forces for drop zones, finding safe houses and providing intelligence activities. She assisted in training at least three battalions of French Resistance forces and continuously reported on enemy movements. The Germans recognized her activities and made her one of their Most Wanted Spies, calling her the woman with a limp and Artemis. Hall had many aliases including Agent Heckler, Marie Monin, Germaine, Diane, and Camille. She managed to teach herself to walk without a limp and employed many disguises, foiling Nazi attempts to capture her. Her success in evading capture was as remarkable as the prodigious work she accomplished. Still active as an operative in 1943, the British quietly awarded Hall the MBE (Member of the Order of the British Empire). Later, in 1945, she was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross by Gen. William Donovan for her efforts in France and Spain. Hers was the only such award to any civilian woman in all of WWII. Hall continued to work for the OSS through its transition to the CIA until 1966. At that time she retired to a farm in Barnesville, MD until her death in 1982. Princess Noor-un-Nisa Inayat Khan A childrens book author may seem an unlikely candidate for international spy induction, but Princess Noor defied any such expectation. The great-niece of Christian Science founderÃ Mary Baker EddyÃ and daughter of Indian royalty, she joined the SOE as Nora Baker in London and trained to operate a wireless radio transmitter. She was sent to occupied France under the code name Madeline, carrying her transmitter from safe house to safe house, maintaining communications for her Resistance unit,Ã with the Gestapo trailing her all the way. Khan was captured and executed as a spy in 1944. She was posthumously awarded the George Cross, the Croix de Guerre and the MBE for her valor. Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell Violette Reine Elizabeth Bushell was born in 1921 to a French mother and British father. Her husband Etienne Szabo was a French Foreign Legion officer killed in battle in North Africa. After her husbands death, Bushell was recruited by the SOE and sent to France as an operative on two occasions. On the second of these visits, she was caught giving cover to a Maquis leader. She killed several German soldiers before finally being captured. Despite torture, Bushell refused to give the Gestapo classified information, so was sent toÃ the concentration campÃ Ravensbruck, where she was executed. She was posthumously honored for her work with both the George Cross and the Croix de Guerre in 1946. The Violette Szabo Museum in Wormelow, Herefordshire, England honors her memory as well. She left behind a daughter, Tania Szabo, who wrote her mothers biography,Ã Young, Brave Beautiful: Violette Szabo GC. Szabo and her highly decorated husband were the most decorated couple in World War II, according to the Guinness Book of World Records. Barbara Lauwers Cpl. Barbara Lauwers, Womens Army Corps, received a Bronze Star for her OSS work, which included using German prisoners for counterintelligence work and cobbling fake passports and other papers for spies and others. Lauwers was instrumental in Operation Sauerkraut, an operation which mobilized German prisoners to spread black propaganda aboutÃ Adolf HitlerÃ behind enemy lines. She created the League of Lonely War Women, or VEK in German. This mythical organization was designed to demoralize German troops by spreading the belief that any soldier on leave could display a VEK symbol and get a girlfriend. One of her operations was so successful that 600 Czechoslovak troops defected behind Italian lines. Amy Elizabeth Thorpe Amy Elizabeth Thorpe, early code name Cynthia, later Betty Pack, worked for the OSS in Vichy, France. She was sometimes used as a swallow- a woman trained to seduce the enemy into sharing secret information- and she participated in break-ins. One daring raid involved taking secret naval codes from a safe within a locked and guarded room. Another involved infiltration of the Vichy French Embassy in Washington D.C., taking important codebooks. Maria Gulovich Maria Gulovich fled Czechoslovakia when it was invaded, emigrating to Hungary. Working with Czech army staff and British and American intelligence teams, she assisted downed pilots, refugees, and resistance members. Gulovich was taken by the KGB and maintained her OSS cover under fierce interrogation while assisting in the Slovak rebellion and rescue efforts for Allied pilots and crews. Julia McWilliams Child Julia ChildÃ was up to much more than gourmet cooking. She wanted to join the WACs or the WAVES but was turned down for being too tall, at a height of 62. Following this rejection, she opted to work in research and development out of the OSS Headquarters in Washington, D.C. Among the projects with which she was involved: a workable shark repellent used for downed flight crews later used for US space missions with water landings and supervising an OSS facility in China. Julia Child handled countless top-secret documents before gaining television fame as The French Chef. Marlene Dietrich German-bornÃ Marlene DietrichÃ became an American citizen in 1939. She volunteered for the OSS and served both by entertaining troops on the front lines and by broadcasting nostalgic songs to battle-weary German soldiers as propaganda. She received the Medal of Freedom for her work. Elizabeth P. McIntosh Elizabeth P. McIntosh was a war correspondent and independent journalist who joined the OSS shortly afterÃ Pearl Harbor. She was instrumental in the interception and rewriting of postcards Japanese troops wrote home while stationed in India. She intercepted and detected orders of numerous sorts, chief among them a copy of the Imperial Order discussing terms of surrender which was then disseminated to Japanese troops. Genevieve Feinstein Not every woman in intelligence was a spy as we think of them. Women also played significant roles as cryptanalysts and code breakers for the Signal Intelligence Service (SIS). Genevieve Feinstein was one such woman, having been responsible for creating a machine used to decode Japanese messages. After WWII, she continued to work in intelligence. Mary Louise Prather Mary Louise Prather headed the SIS stenographic section. She was responsible for logging messages in code and preparing decoded messages for distribution. Prather was primarily credited with having uncovered a previously-unnoticed yet distinct correlation between two Japanese messages which led to the decryption of a pivotal new Japanese code system. Juliana Mickwitz Juliana Mickwitz escaped Poland during the Nazi invasion of 1939. She became a translator of Polish, German and Russian documents and worked with the Military Intelligence Directorate of the War Department. She went on to translate voice messages. Josephine Baker Josephine BakerÃ was a singer and dancer best known at the time as the Creole Goddess, the Black Pearl or the Black Venus for her beauty. But Baker was also a spy working undercover for the French Resistance, smuggling military secrets written in invisible ink on her sheet musicÃ into Portugal from France. Hedy Lamarr Actress Hedy Lamarr made a valuable contribution to the intelligence division by co-producing an anti-jamming device for torpedoes. She also devised a clever way of frequency hopping that prevented the interception of American military messages. Famous for the Road movies with Bob Hope, everyone knew she was an actress but few were aware she was an inventor of military importance. Nancy Grace Augusta Wake New Zealand-born Nancy Grace Augusta Wake, AC GM, was the most decorated servicewoman among Allied troops in WWII. Wake grew up in Australia, working early on as a nurse and later as a journalist. As a journalist, she watched the rise of Hitler, well aware of the dimension of the threat Germany posed. Living in France with her husband at the start of World War II, Wake became a courier for the French Resistance. Among the Gestapos Most Wanted Spies, she was in constant danger, having her phone tapped and her mail read. Nazi Germany eventually put a five million franc price on the head of the woman they called the White Mouse. When her network was uncovered, Wake fled. Forced to leave her husband behind, the Gestapo tortured him to death trying to obtain her location. She was briefly arrested but released and, after six attempts, fled to England where she joined the SOE. In 1944 Wake parachuted back into France to assist the Maquis, where she participated in training highly effective Resistance troops. She once bicycled 100 miles through German checkpoints to replace a lost code and was reputed to have killed a German soldier with her bare hands to save others. After the war she was awarded the Croix de Guerre three times, the George Medal, the MÃ ©daille de la RÃ ©sistance, and the American Medal of Freedom for her undercover achievements. Afterword These are only a few of the women who served as spies in the two great world wars. Many took their secrets to the grave and were known only to their contacts. They were military women, journalists, cooks, actresses, and ordinary people caught up in extraordinary times. Their stories demonstrate that they were ordinary women of extraordinary courage and inventiveness who helped to change the world with their work. Women have played this role in many wars over the ages, but we are fortunate to have records of quite a few of those women who worked undercover in World War I and World War II, and we are all honored by their accomplishments. Sources and Further Reading The Wolves at the Door: The True Story of Americas Greatest Female SpyÃ by Judith L. Pearson, The Lyons Press (2005).Sisterhood of SpiesÃ by Elizabeth P. McIntosh, published by the Naval Institute Press.Young, Brave Beautiful: Violette Szabo GCÃ by Tania Szabo.
Monday, February 17, 2020
Information Systems and Software Applications - Assignment Example There are different software applications and systems for different departments in an organization to cater to their unique needs. Many vendors are available in the market to offer their own creations therefore it is a difficult task to choose the most appropriate required software. Some of the most known vendors in the market that provide such systems and applications are: Oracle provides an efficient financial management solution among its wide range of products with the name of Oracle E-business Suite Financials. It automates the financial structure of the organization and provides a standard global platform for accounting and finance activities. Oracle (2010a) explains that it offers many functions and features, namely; asset lifecycle management, lease and finance management, financial analysis, travel and expense management etc. It allows the organization to meet the global financial reporting standards which is coupled with banking and payments model. Human resource department is also a very important department in an organization that overlooks many operations and processes. SAP Human Resource Management System is one of the best HR systems in the market. It offers many functions to its users and automates many processes that are related to this department. According to Independent SAP Information (2010), some of the main modules of this system are as follows: These modules are further divided into smaller modules that take care of different functions in the organization for example Time management further includes shift planning, time sheet, time administration. Payroll module involves all the activities related to the salaries of the employees, leave management, bonuses, increments etc. An efficient system for the marketing department is Oracle Marketing Analytics; it enables the organization and thus the department to get maximum results from their