Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Impacts of Federal Mandates on Intergovernmental Relations Essay Open Policy making is a focal errand of the Government. There has been concerns with respect to the impact administrative order on intergovernmental relations. So as to comprehend and assess these impacts we will talk about the impact of the intergovernmental campaign over the Medicaid program. We will likewise break down the significance of intrigue arrangement between the bureaucratic and states Governments and reviewing straightforwardness so as to guarantee smooth working of these open projects. Medicaid is the health care coverage program that is directed by the states and subsidized together by bureaucratic and state governments (Weissert 1992). The Medicaid has a significant spot throughout the entire existence of clinical treatment in the U. S. An association respectable in origination has two measurements to endure. The double measurement challenges are to adapt up to the changing needs of patients with consistently expanding costs because of advances in clinical information, prescriptions and innovation. From the opposite side the weight is to discover arrangements in the confined financial plan and to deal with the changing political weights. From its starting the Medicaid experienced numerous changes. Scientists have recognized scarcely any moves confronting Medicaid so as to provide food the necessities of the patients. They are keeping it clear to draw in administration clients in choices or connecting with the more extensive open. Also to build up a connection between people in general and the wellbeing framework. Third, Quick arrangements through open conversations. The fourth is to take a since quite a while ago run at this. At long last, accomplishing above objectives and substantially more from the Medicaid by connecting with clients and patients in the dynamic procedure. The most recent couple of decades have seen a significant change in the Primary consideration necessities, increment in the maturing populace, broad of interminable ailments, increment in the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s mindfulness, and more noteworthy responsibility because of expanded presentation (Coote, 2005). This has made a change in perspective in the prerequisites of patients. The expanding pattern of customer focused administrations has made it significant for the Medicaid to discover approaches to give quick and simple to get to essential consideration to the patients. As indicated by the Department of Health change plan the vision of progress in Medicaid ought to be coordinated towards the requirements of the patients instead of the specialist organizations. So as to attempt the change procedure successfully the expert job of the NHS staff ought to likewise be changed. These means towards modernisation were demonstrated: ) Adoption of progress by the Medicaid staff. 2) GovernmentÃ¢â¬â¢s job in disposing of obstructions in the best approach to change. 3) The strategy for instruction and preparing ought to likewise be rebuilt. Since the Medicaid program is attempted with the join endeavors of the bureaucratic and state governments it can obviously give the image of the impact of states in intergovernmental relations. The organization of the Medicaid program gives the state governments experience, the executives capacities and the data of the significant parts of viability of such projects for low-salary gathering. Both the bureaucratic and state governments subsidize the Program. It is regularly the situation that there is huge contrast in the objectives of both state and governments. So as to legitimize the costs it is required for the national government to embrace review programs (Anton 1997). The way toward affirming Medicaid program has consistently stayed disputable as it has been seen ordinarily that state office faces lesser analysis while justifying on the Medicaid program. This has stayed an unsettled issue between the state and national governments as frequently strife emerges on a similar issue between the two government levels. An absence of aggregate activity has been felt between both the administrative and state level governments. The circumstance appears to compromise the federalism. State governments have the mastery to embrace investigation and propose improvement quantifies however these ability are not used to advance intergovernmental relations consequently unfavorably affecting the potential program upgrades. Both the state and governments at a set rate support the expense for the Medicaid program. It has been seen that the legislatures of various states continue exploring different avenues regarding various installments systems for the most part planned for lessening their expense through moving their the expense of the program to the government treasury (Weissert and Weissert 2006). The states utilize distinctive financing forms so as to draw down assets from the focal government without spending their own assets. One such path is to expand the installment rate for the qualification of open consideration suppliers. This higher installment rate thusly offers ascend to the portion of the central government. The state governments get back the part of the excess through expense burden or intentional commitments. Albeit numerous states utilize this overflow sum in the arrangement of other open offices to the individuals yet at the same time there has been questions with respect to the correct and straightforward utilization of these assets. States utilize two such projects: Under unbalanced offer medical clinic installments (DSH installments) program the state governments gives higher measures of assets to open emergency clinics and network wellbeing focuses which serve individuals from low pay gathering. Through the Upper installment limits (UPL) states repay a portion of these suppliers up to the most noteworthy Medicaid repayment rate (Weissert and Weissert 2006: 267). These projects are actualized to take care of the expenses of care arrangement to low-salary Medicaid and uninsured patients. The states use intergovernmental moves (IGTs) to move back the assets at the various degrees of government. The unwavering quality of these (IGTs) as the proof of installment reusing is dubious. Despite the fact that it is through the federalism the opportunities for obtaining data with respect to the strategies expands due to the improved odds of experimentation because of decentralization yet then again it is additionally federalism which goes about as an imperative to attempt measures as indicated by that data. The higher level of conflict between the bureaucratic and state level governmentsÃ¢â¬â¢ brings about state of the wastage of the state potential which can be utilized for the prosperity of the country at administrative level. This is the thing that we call the Ã¢â¬Å"failure of federalism,Ã¢â¬ where the state level skill are not recognize in national policymaking.
Saturday, August 22, 2020
Models in venture the executives - Essay Example This announcement of work will give a profound knowledge into improvement of the significant level task contract for the E-Mail Upgrade Project portrayed in the situation. This announcement will give a diagram of the recognizable proof of a task the executives philosophy and undertaking group, and a benchmark plan. This will depict the task target and its fundamental extension. This undertaking is going to upgrade the general structure if the organization correspondence structure. This undertaking will overhaul the email arrangement of the Ohio Department of Human Services. Through this the association will show signs of improvement correspondence offices and information sharing system over the authoritative intranet. This undertaking will improve the accompanying zones of the association; This undertaking will be executed on the Ohio Department of Human ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢s hierarchical Intranet. The Office of Network Support (ONS) will follow along and deal with the general venture and its related initiates (undertakings, stages). We have chosen to buy the new form of the Worldviewupgrades that is Globalupgrades 9.0. This is better framework with the proposal of limits for a Version 9.0 permit. We are likewise happy with the nature of this framework working. This framework will likewise offer the better hearty workplace. I have dissected the general undertaking assignments and fundamental exercises that we should perform. After this I have formulated a useful and religious community course of events for this task. This undertaking will take three months for the general task execution and usage. Toward the finish of the three months we are hoping to have the general new proficient working framework that will convey the better execution and correspondence foundation. After that we need to connect with a preparation time of three days that will present the all close to home in regards to the utilization of the new framework. This framework ought to have the capacity to endure any framework level blunder. This framework ought to likewise
Friday, July 31, 2020
CPW at Random Hall! Freshly minted prefrosh! Three years ago I was in your comparatively less soggy shoes, battling a CPW-long downpour over and under rooftops without my future dark green double-canopy umbrella. I got lost in the Infinite Corridor. I used a power drill. I got my arm signed by Chris M. 12. I even did my differential equations homework in close proximity to real MIT students doing their own differential equations homework. Very exciting. My advice to youâ" If you brought homework, donât do it. Meet people. Visit every dorm. Talk to fellow incoming freshmen and talk to upperclassmen. Donât watch fun from a corner like I sometimes did. Finally, Random Hall has a step at the entrance. Donât trip over it. Tomorrow you should come to Meet the Bloggers so that you can meet us, the bloggers, and you should also come to Random Hall so that you can meet us, the Randomites. Next fall you might find yourself wanting to be a Randomite (or an honorary Randomite), too. Also, someone who stopped by Random today recognized me and asked for a sticker because of something I said a year ago. If that lovely person is you and you would still like your sticker, please ask me again anytime this weekend or next semester and I will give you your well-earned sticker. If that lovely person is not you but you would nonetheless appreciate a sticker, please stop by Random Hall this weekend and I can give you a sticker, too. It can even have glitter on it, if youâd like. What follows are this CPWâs super-exciting events at Random Hall: Thursday Dumpling Hylomorphisms Anamorphism: the building up of a structure. Catamorphism: the consumption of a structure. Hylomorphism: both an anamorphism and a catamorphism. This event? A hylomorphism on dumplings. Come learn the basic fold, or just perform a metabolic reduction on food. 13:17 14:17 LN2 Truffles and the Chocolate Nash Equilibrium First, make your own truffles using liquid nitrogen. But dont leave, because then well use all that delicious chocolate to learn about game theory. 14:17 16:17 Nerd Trivial Pursuit Show off your nerd cred with Nerd Trivial Pursuit. When the categories are Literature, TV Movies, Science, Anime Manga, Games, and Comics, will you have what it takes to win? 15:17 16:47 mitBEEF and Meatballs Roll your own beef meatballs! While theyre cooking, well sing beef carols together and maybe write some new carols. mitBEEF is a club dedicated to educating the MIT community about beef. (Note: this is a club event, not a Random Hall event) 15:30 16:30 Chess is a Game Best Played with Nerf Blasters None of this tame nonsense! Use nerf darts to skip your opponents turns and capture their king. 16:47 18:47 Math and Tea Math is beautiful, cookies are sweet, tea is tasty. Come enjoy all three as we discuss topics in math ranging from algebra to topology. 17:17 20:17 Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream!! I scream, you scream, we all scream for 77 Kelvins. 18:17 19:17 Roofdeck BBQ Meat! Ribs, sausage, burgers, and more! Come eat, talk, eat, and see the awesomeness of having a roofdeck. And eat! Food of the non-meat variety to be served as well. 18:47 20:17 Dubstep with Destiny Come test how loud our kitchens sound system can get when we blast all the bass-heavy music I hear kids these days enjoy! 21:47 22:47 Friday Disney and Pancakes Random Hall, its a quiet village. Every day like the one before. Random Hall, full of little people, waking up to makeâ¦ PANCAKES?! Dig into blueberry chocolate chip spicy cinnamon pancakes while singing along to your favorite Disney songs! 08:47 10:00 Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream!! Served steaming cold. 11:47 12:47 Victoriana Tea Gather to bemoan the decline of our Queen Victorias empire or gossip about the most recent painters at the Salon. Tea will be served; enjoyment will be had. There may be Downton or Emma: A Victorian Romance. 13:17 14:17 Cooking Vegetarians Uhh I meant vegetarian cooking. Yeah. Come tuck into a meat-free feast prepared for you by Randomites. If you eat vegansâ" vegan! I meant vegan! â" there will be plenty of options available. 14:17 15:17 Build a Cardboard Fortress, Then Fight a Nerf Gun War Step 1: Erect large cardboard structures Step 2: Kick back and relax? Step 3: DEATH TO THE INFIDELS WHO CONSTRUCTED THESE INFERIOR CARDBOARD FORTS! 15:17 17:17 Nerdy Singalong and Kit Kat Lasagna Go ahead and leave me â" I think I prefer to stay inside. Sing along to our favorite nerdy songs, and then make lasagna entirely out of candy. Hopefully well be still alive. 17:17 18:47 Fantasy Feast The lovely ladies of Fortress Awesome invite you to their castle for a glorious feast. Eat stews, breads, meats, and vegetables that you might find in fantasy movies or shows. 18:47 20:47 Computer Science and Juice Algorithms! Data structures! Computational models! Come and enjoy delicious juice and learn some fascinating computer science. 20:47 22:47 Pecker Board Game Night Build a Dominion in Puerto Rico to prevent your Descent into Revolution. Through the ages, board games have been a leading tradition of Random Hall. Come play them with us! 22:17 02:47 RHOP Random House of Pancakes. Pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes. Wow, pancakes is a really weird looking word. 03:17 05:17 Saturday Saturday Morning Breakfast Cartoons Do you want to Catch Them All? Have you harnessed the Heart of the Cards? Come watch the cartoons you loved while tucking in to breakfast foods from your childhood. 09:47 11:17 Deep Fried Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream What happens when you subject ice cream to a 400K temperature gradient? Om Nom Nom!!! Pun not intended. 10:47 11:47 (Almost) Life-sized Settlers of Catan Come play (almost) life-sized Settlers of Catan! Hoard (and eat, when its not your turn) marshmallow sheep, pretzel wheat, oreo iron, and graham-cracker bricks! Trade them with your neighbors, or foil their plans and keep everything for yourself. Build roads, villages, and cities! 11:47 13:47 My Course Is Better Than Your Taco We love our majors. We also love our enchiladas! Come munch on authentic home-cooked Hispanic food while listening to the upperclassmen talk about why their major is the best thing ever! 15:17 17:17 Random: the Gathering Have you ever wanted to cast Global Thermonuclear War? Come play Random: the Gathering. Its Magic: the Gathering with a Random Hall theme! 16:17 17:17 Cheese and Chainmail Ever been woken up by swordsmen breaking down your door? Lost sleep while craving for brie? Well, youll rest easy after this event. Make armor worthy of the thirteenth century while sampling all the cheese Random has to offer! 16:17 17:47 Boff for Fried-dom Stab your friends and enemies alike with foam swords on Randoms roofdeck! Champions (and everybody else) will then get to fry all kinds of delicious foods in our two deep fryers. 19:47 21:17 Sweet Rave Party Rave: An underground party in which electronic music is played, dancing occurs in a very free-form fashion. The dress of the partygoers is quite unrestrained. Urban Dictionary 22:47 01:17 Sunday Spinning and Leftover Brunch Things which youll learn to spin in Random Hall: poi and staff. Things that make your head spin in Random Hall: the prospect of a delicious Sunday brunch made from leftovers. Awake and hungry? Well teach you, and well feed you. 09:47 11:47 Post Tagged #Random Hall CPW at Random Hall! I canât believe itâs been a year since I first delved into the MIT campus for a 3-day Campus Preview Weekend. Suffice it to say that those three days felt like the longest three days of my life. My total sleep count over that weekend was in the single digits and I still remember a lot. My adrenaline was at an all-time high, fueled by the Institues atmosphere of absolute energy. I remember a large bouncy castle and upperclassmen being dunked in water. I remember hugging Tim the Beaver and pulling my first all-nighter talking to amazing people. I remember my host, who hugged me on sight, and I remember the utter feeling of overwhelming joy as I treaded this new and strange and exciting environment. I remember a cool robot demonstration and I remember more liquid nitrogen ice-cream events than I really should! But despite how much of MIT I soaked in, I only covered a pinprick of what was in store for us. And to everyone whoâs going to be here over the next few days for CPW, I can promise you that getting pulled into its amazing pulse will be almost effortless. It takes a life of its own, and kind of sucks you in. But youâll also need to be proactive. I found meticulously planning what events to attend particularly unhelpful, because I realized that just taking a bunch of steps in some random direction led me to some new place with some ongoing event far more exciting than what I had originally planned. That said, do go through your CPW booklet, which should contain literally dozens of pages of events spread out over 3-4 days! Find events that get you super-excited and go see them, but donât overplan. CPW was one of the most memorable weekends of my life, so much so in fact, that for the rest of this week, I am no longer Vincent Anioke, MIT Freshman. I am now Jason Hernaka, bespectacled, clueless prefrosh from Uganda, and Iâll try to see how many prefrosh events I can sneak my way into, before my cover is blown and Iâm kicked out in some barrel. And now I present some wonderful advice (from wonderful current students at MIT) about CPW, as well the events going on in my dorm, Random Hall! There are tons of exciting ones so come check us out, and worry not if you get lost. The brave soldiers of Random have drawn paths leading from the Student Center to the abode that is Random Hall. Beyond our mystic doors, you will find the Ancients, sage-eyed and grinning, their arms stretched, to welcome you into a new and exciting world. Katie B. 15 1. If you pay for food at any point, youre doing it wrong. 2. If youre asking yourself, Should I go to Thing X? the answer is always yes. Events sleeping. 3. Try things youve never done before, and try things youre not sure youll like; MIT is all about new experiences! Elizabeth K. 14 Donât stress over not being able to do everything. Itâs a life skill youâll have to get used to if you come to MIT. :) Also, donât forget to sleep, as much as people pressure you to do ALL THE THINGS. Sleep is important. Rebecca L. 17 I didnt know housing lottery was a thing and hence paid zero attention to dorms. This is a bad idea. Pay some attention to which dorm you like, so you can think about where you might want to lottery. At the same time, dont worry a ton about it because fyre and rex. Kate T. 16 Check out ALL the dorms! Even if you fall in love with one and all you want to do is spend ALL your time there, you need to keep your options open. If you do end up in your first choice, youll have a better idea of what your other friends living groups are like. If you dont get into your first choice dorm, youll know what other dorms would be a good fit for you and where you would be happy your first semester (if not your entire time at MIT) :) Katie S. 17 Thoroughly look over all the events in advance. Schedule your CPW time, but be flexible. Also, get your parents to go to boring but informative events, and go to the fun ones instead. Try make it to a lot of the different dorms and get tours (this will be much better than trying to figure out which dorm you want later, with just the online information). Also, really talk to the people who live in each dorm about what its like. Also, even if youre not planning on living in an east side dorm, you should visit them to see some of the awesome murals they have. Andrea L. 14 Have fun! Try to think about if you want to be like people you are meeting in 2 or 4 years. The people you surround yourself with shape who you become. Meanwhile, brewing at Random Hall Thursday Dumpling Hylomorphisms Anamorphism: the building up of a structure. Catamorphism: the consumption of a structure. Hylomorphism: both an anamorphism and a catamorphism. This event? A hylomorphism on dumplings. Come learn the basic fold, or just perform a metabolic reduction on food. 12:17 PM 2:47 PM Ceiling Tile Painting Throughout history, magnificent masterpieces have been painted on ceilings. Unlike Michelangelo, however, you can just take a ceiling tile down at Random instead of having to lie on your back in the Sistine Chapel. Bring your own ideas, paint from our photo references, or replicate your favorite art piece in ceiling tile form! 2:47 PM 4:47 PM Computer Science and Juice Bobby walks down the aisle at Shaws, trying to pick the optimal set of juices to buy. He cant buy pomegranate juice without something sweeter to mix it with, like apple or orange, but if he buys orange juice, he wont buy orange mango as welluh oh. Bobby smells a boolean satisfiability problem to solve. 4:17 PM 6:17 PM LN2 Ice Cream and Giga Pudding Like liquid nitrogen? Like ice cream? Like pudding? How about mega puddings? What about a GIGA pudding? Come to Random to eat delicious liquid nitrogen ice cream and make large quantities of pudding. Itll be gigantically delicious. 5:47 PM 7:47 PM Nerdy Singalong! Its hard to overstate my satisfaction with how much this event fulfilling in creative way. If hopes and dreams are shattering apart, and youre flying off the stage in the super smash, remember its gonna be the future soon, so enjoy your stay here on skullcrusher mountain and be still alive. 6:47 PM 8:30 PM BBQ and Spinning on the Roofdeck Meat! Poi! Ribs, sausage, burgers, and more! Come see the awesomeness of having one of the only roofdecks in Cambridge. Eat our delicious meat products; then learn and practice the creativity of applying centripetal force to poi and staff in time to music. (Food of the non-meat variety to be served as well.) 9:47 PM 12:17 AM Friday Pancakes Pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes pancakes. Wow, pancakes is a really weird looking word. 8:17 AM 10:00 AM Boffing on the Roofdeck Arm yourself with a weapon wrought of foam and tape, and strike with the fury of a thousand tigers! FOR THE GLORY OF RANDOM HALL! 11:47 AM 12:17 PM MEA Eat tasty, tasty meat with mitBEEF, MITs beef appreciation club, and meet current students. Meat: its delicious! Vegan options are available. (Note: this is a club event, not a Random Hall event) 1:00 PM 2:30 PM Deep-Fried Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream What happens when you subject ice cream to a 400K temperature gradient? Om Nom Nom!!! Pun not intended. 2:17 PM 3:47 PM Maid: the Tabletop RPG You are Japanese maids, caring for your young master in his lavish mansion. Clean the mantelpieces, make the beds, and defend the house from the portal to Hell in the basement. All in a days work! 3:17 PM 5:17 PM Nerf Chess You know what Chess needs? THE SHEER ADRENALINE OF DODGING NERF DARTS WHILE PLAYING. 4:47 PM 6:17 PM Math and Tea Cookies are sweet, tea is tasty, math is beautiful. Come enjoy all three. 5:47 PM 8:47 PM Making Board Games and Cooking Vegetarians Uhh I meant vegetarian cooking. Yeah. Come tuck into a meat-free feast prepared for you by Randomites, then spend an hour creating a board game the like of which has never before been seen. 8:17 PM 10:17 PM RHOP (Cruft Edition!) Random House of Pancakes: the best source of 3 AM pancakes within a two-foot radius of Random Hall. This RHOP, join us for a special treat as Random Hall cruft* tell us stories of the times when MIT was more hardk0r3. * cruft: code, data, or software of poor quality. Also, MIT alumni. 1:17 AM 5:47 AM Saturday Saturday Morning Breakfast Cereal Get nostalgic and eat yummy cereal while watching kids cartoons! 9:47 AM 11:47 AM Random: the Gathering Ever wanted to cast Global Thermonuclear War? Want to play Magic: the Gathering and learn about Random and MIT? Want to learn how to play Magic and learn about Random and MIT? If you answered yes to any non-negative number of these questions, come and play Random: the Gathering. 11:17 AM 1:17 PM Epic Meal Time of Destiny Do you want to get lost in the bacon-y, bacon-y sauce? Yes, yes you do, the sauce boss wants you! Epic Meal Time of Destiny, what up haterz, come and stuff your face! 12:47 PM 2:17 PM Liquid Nitrogen Truffles Do you want to make your own chocolates filled with peanut butter, oreos, various flavors of ganache, or even more chocolate? Do you want to expedite the process using SCIENCE? Come join us as we use liquid nitrogen to make delicious balls of chocolatey goodness. 1:47 PM 3:47 PM Random Plays Video Games Praise the almighty Helix Fossil! Can you do better than QWOP doing a tax return? Come find out what happens when the hive mind plays single-player video games. 3:17 PM 4:47 PM (Almost) Life-Sized Settlers of Catan Come play (almost) life-sized Settlers of Catan! Hoard (and eat, when its not your turn) marshmallow sheep, pretzel wheat, oreo iron, and graham-cracker bricks! Trade them with your neighbors, or foil their plans and keep everything for yourself. Build roads, villages, and cities! 4:17 PM 6:00 PM My Course + Curry Your Course + Curry We love our majors! We love curry! Come eat curry with the upperclassmen and learn about the awesome things you could be studying. Curry favor by having all the expansions for Race to the Galaxy, curry favor by teaching someone about exoplanets, curry curry by showing up to Random Hall and eating with us. We will have golden curry with lots of vegetables and rice. (Vegan and vegetarian options available.) 7:47 PM 9:17 PM Chainmail and Cheese Ever been woken up by swordsmen breaking down your door? Lost sleep while craving for brie? Well, youll rest easy after this event. Make armor worthy of the thirteenth century while sampling all the cheese Random has to offer! 8:47 PM 10:17 PM Pecker Board Game Night Build a Dominion in Puerto Rico comprised of Seven Wonders, then Race to the Galaxy and help the Twilight Imperium crush the Resistance. Through the Ages, board games have been an Innovation Random Hall has enjoyed. Come and play the various board games weve acquired! 9:47 PM 3:17 AM Rocky Horrible with ICE PLANETS Think Dr. Horrible is a beautiful, amazing, inviolable work of perfect art? Please go somewhere else. Anyone left? Come join us in yelling obscenities at a perfectly nice Sing-Along Blog that has done absolutely nothing to deserve it. Afterwards, join us and our freeze rays in making everyones favorite impossible-to-eat food, ice planets! 11:17 PM 1:17 AM Sunday Wonderland Tea Party Slide down the rabbit hole, and come have tea with us in Wonderland! 11:17 AM 12:47 PM Feel the magic this weekend. Post Tagged #Random Hall
Friday, May 22, 2020
Sample details Pages: 6 Words: 1770 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Education Essay Type Analytical essay Tags: Childhood Essay Did you like this example? Discuss Froebels ideas about Play, and the Environments and Resources which support childrens development. Reflect on the Value of Froebels ideas today. Illustrate your answer with examples from your childhood and any observations you have of children at home or in an early years settings. Introduction Friedrich Froebal (1782-1852) was a German educator most famous for his insight into the importance of the early years of a childs life to their development and later life. Furthermore he also considered that the effect of early life extended beyond the educational achievement into health and society at large. Froebal created kindergartens (childrens gardens) as he perceived a childs growth to be like a plant growing and thriving where the right conditions exist. Within the kindergartens he utilised his principles and practices, including experience of out of doors activities, as an important part of the educational practice. He developed a series of gifts which are designed to be a gift in two senses: firstly in the sense of being given to the child as a gift and secondly as a gift of development. The gifts, which are learning tools, were planned to be age relevant and to encourage development and self-actualisation in the child (Provenzo, 2009) p88-89). The kindergart en and Froebals approach have had a massive impact on early learning and still has relevance today. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Principles of Education Essay Example for College Students" essay for you Create order Froebals influence in the present day The early years of life are vital to the overall development of a child. During this time the emotional parameters are learned together with ways to interact with others and learning through experiences (Sroufe, 1997 p.1-8). In order to maximise the benefit of this time correct stimulation and provision of tools/toys that will enable the child to explore and learn about themselves and the world around them are necessary. Froebal specifically devised his principles for ages 1-7. The Froebal approach involves the principles, pedagogy and environment. The principles take a holistic view of the individual childs progress and recognises their uniqueness, capacity and potential. In addition play is seen to be fundamental and important in the childs development. Part of the learning includes understanding, and working with, the place of humankind in the natural world. Finally the principles recognise the integrity of childhood and of the child as part of a family and of the commu nity (Hermann, 1926 p.201-205). The pedagogy involves having knowledgeable and appropriately qualified professionals to provide skilled informed observation of the children and provide appropriate guidance and teaching. Key to the process of teaching is that is must reach the imaginative, creative, symbolic, linguistic, mathematical, musical, aesthetic, scientific, physical, social, moral, cultural and spiritual aspects of the child. This clearly shows how wide a range of stimulation is required. The childs development is not just the responsibility of the teachers and it is important that the parents/guardians of the child and their educators work harmoniously together to maintain a consistent approach. Play is central to the process and there needs to be a sense of purpose for the child in that play together with an understanding that the child must be viewed holistically as a thinking, feeling person. Encouragement is used rather than punishment to help the child to expand their self-confidence and autonomy. Play can also be used to help the child learn to be able work alone and also with others (Willinsky, 1990 p154-5) . The environment in which the child is placed will also have an important role in their development. Whilst the environment needs to be safe it must also encourage curiosity, stimulation and challenge. Indoor and outdoor activities widen the possible areas of learning and vary the environment providing interest and variety. Froebal also saw working in an environment that is integral to the community to be important in helping the child to be both independent and interdependent and to understand individuality and community and responsibility and freedom. These basic ideals were set out originally by Froebal in his 1826 book The Education of Man. He viewed his own childhood with limited parental attention and remembered his loneliness and using this as his starting point he developed his ideals. He also drew on the knowledge of previous educators when developing his own system of education (Polito, 1996)(p. 161-173). This point may well need to be revisited now with the advent of computers and television programmes specifically aimed at young children. Research needs to be aimed at determining the effects of lack of face to face attention from parents and other adults at home and learning being handed over to mechanical means. There would appear to be correlations between Froebals situation and that of many children today. Lack of interaction with other children and a range of adults limits the possible range of learning situations and may create problems with social interaction later in life although research into this area needs to be conducted to fully understand the effects. Having only the TV or computer for entertainment will also serious limit the childs imagination through lack of personal interaction and physically being involved in the play. This may affect motor skills too through lack of use and a reduced range of movement. In my own childhood I was always encouraged to use inventive play and would create theatre sets with my friends and we would perform little puppet shows for our parents. This type of play involved a variety of concepts; craft work to create the sets, linguistic skills to write the plays, integrated play by playing with others and dexterity to use puppets. Froebals methods are still valid today and can provide children with a wide range of experiences and instil in them curiosity and interest that can be built upon throughout life. Despite how long ago these principles were first developed they are still fully appropriate today perhaps because they relate to the core aspects of development leaving room for the method to be varied as necessary. The gifts such as gift 2 (a set of 3 blocks one square, one sphere and one cylinder) can be moved together with rods and strings to provide multiple possibilities for interactions . These forms introduce the child to geometry and also allow for free expression within individual play. Gift 2 was a form that so embodied Froebals insights that it was used to create a granite construction over his grave (Froebal webn.d.) [online]. There are many toys available today that have similar possibilities and it is important that children are both allowed to play alone with these items but also that parents share play with them too to help with integrated play. One of the key elements within Froebals thinking was the interaction with nature and the natural world. I remember when I was young that at school we had a wild garden at the rear of the playground and we had classes sitting in that area learning about plants and how they grew taking inspiration from what was growing around us. In current settings some schools are able to encourage children in their own school gardens. Whilst this is not appropriate for very small children their interest and excitemen t about the outside world can be begun by allowing them to play outside and introducing them to flora and fauna such as watching spring bulbs coming up. Many parents may also need assistance in this area as they have not had these experiences themselves and thus have difficulty in helping their children to develop in this way (Taylor, 2004 p.163-178) . It is, therefore, important that children have access to a variety of environments in order to have the opportunity to understand and learn about different settings. Froebal identified that children will have their own individual thoughts and understanding of the things around them and by interaction and role play develop their knowledge further. (Puckett, 2004 p. 45-6) . He described play as the work of children (Miller, 2009)(p.46-50). The current economic situation may have an impact on the money available to parents. However, children are able to benefit from fewer more appropriate ready-made toys and the freedom to be come inventive and create their own entertainment. Children will, for instance, often be more interested in the box something comes in and convert the box into a car or tank or dolls house. Such creative play will expand the childs abilities in many different areas (Robson, 2006 p. 39-55) f. The Government scheme Every Child Matters recognises the importance of the early years of life and sets out a range of proposals to support children, parents and all those involved in the care and education of children (H.M. Government, 2003). Through this provision there is a wide range of information and guidance available that can assist in providing good, safe environments and appropriate resources to facilitate learning. This includes such resources as Early Years Learning and Development Literature Review (available as a free download) produced by the Government which contains a wealth of evidence based information to assist in all areas of child development (Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Family, 2009) Conclusion Froebals vision was clear and detailed and still is equally valid today. The way in which it is expressed may have developed further from the original but the basic principles still hold true. The early years are vital to the overall development of a child so it is very important to provide the best environment and resources to facilitate learning. Most children will need to be able to continue with life-long learning to deal with the challenges presented in adult life so stimulating them early on to enjoy learning and creativity prepares them for their futures. Parents, carers and educators need to be working together in order to provide the best environment and resources for children and give them the very best start in life possible. Bibliography Froebal web. (n.d.). Second Gift. Retrieved March 13th, 2012, from Froebal Web an online resource: https://www.froebelweb.org/gifts/second.html H.M. Government. (2003). Every Child Matters. London: Government. Hermann, M. (1926, April). Froebels Kindergarten and What It Means. The Irish Monthly, 54(634), 201-209. Puckett, M. B. (2004). Teaching Young Children An introduction to the early childhood profession. Canada: Delmar Learning. Robson, S. (2006). Developing thinking and understanding in young children. Oxford: Routledge. Secretary of State for Children, Schools and Family. (2009). Early Years Learning and Development Literature Review. London: H.M. Government. Sroufe, L. A. (1997). Emotional Development : The Organization of Emotional Life in the Early Years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Taylor, L. C. (2004). Academic Socialization: Understanding Parental Influences on Childrens School-Related Development in the Early Years. Review of General P sychology, 8(3), 163Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã¢â¬Å"178. Willinsky, J. R. (1990). The Educational Legacy of Romanticism. Ontario: Wilfred Laurier University Press.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
Rene Descartes second meditation is titled, Concerning the Nature of the Human Mind: That it is Better Known than the Body. In his second meditation, Descartes argues that the human mind exists merely by itself without any physical representation in the world. This argument lead to many of his later meditations and allowed him to really build the framework for Western Philosophy. The cogent argument is arguably the most crucial argument, which lead us to our philosophy of the mind. In some respect, Descartes is on the right path to understanding our senses and their relation to the reality of the world. However, he does not assess all of the possibilities in our senses including that of our physical condition, which will explored later. DescartesÃ¢â¬â¢ second meditation continues from his first by him acknowledging that his senses and body do not exist. Possibly the only thing that he can confirm from his first meditation is that there is no certainty in the world. This leads him t o question where that thought of doubt is actually coming from. Since he has all of these doubts about his physical existence in this world, he wishes to conclude that he is nonexistent. However, to have any of these doubts he must exist to an extent. An example he highlights in his meditation is, Ã¢â¬Å"There is some deceiver or other who is supremely powerful and supremely sly and who is always deliberately deceiving me.Ã¢â¬ (Descartes 2006, 13) However, he realizes to be deceived in the first place, he mustShow MoreRelatedHuman Nature And The Mind974 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHuman Nature and The Mind Human nature and the mind have been studied for ages. As humans, we tend to think, feel, and act in certain ways that are often elucidated by nature and evolution. In fields such as Psychology, Philosophy, and Science, human nature and the mind have been extensively studied to develop theories about why humans act, think, and feel that way that we do. It is believed by some that humans are born a certain way by nature. There are three ways that people tend to believe humansRead MoreThe Nature Of The Human Mind1415 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The Cogito argument, Ã¢â¬Å"I think, therefore I amÃ¢â¬ was a statement made by Descartes and is valid. The Second Meditation, Ã¢â¬Å"The nature of the human mind, and how it is better known than the bodyÃ¢â¬ the meditator is determined in his decision to search for uncertainty and to dispose anything that is false and contains the slightest doubt. The meditator supposes that what he sees does not exist, his memory is defective. He claims that , Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ he has no sense, no body, and movements and places are mistaken ideasRead MoreThe Nature of the Human Mind and the Human Body1095 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesDescartes talks about the nature of the human mind, and how the mind relates to the human body. With his famous declaration, I am, I exist, Descartes claims that Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ am Ã¢â¬Å"a thinking thingÃ¢â¬ , and therefore Ã¢â¬Å"IÃ¢â¬ exist (17-18). He also argues that the mind is better known than the body. In the Sixth Meditation, he further argues that there must be a clear distinction between mind and body. However, there is surely some connection between these two. In The Treatise on Human Nature, Aquinas argues that theRead MoreUnderstanding The Nature Of The Human Mind Essay1115 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction The human brain is a very complicated part of the human anatomy. Kanwisher states in an inaugural article, Ã¢â¬Å"Understanding the nature of the human mind is arguably the greatest intellectual quest of all time. It is also one of the most challenging, requiring the combined insights not only of psychologists, computer scientists, and neuroscientists but of thinkers in nearly every intellectual pursuit, from biology and mathematics to art and anthropologyÃ¢â¬ (2010). The impacts occur whenRead More Hamlet - The Imbalance of the Idealistic Mind and Human Nature1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages- The Imbalance of the Idealistic Mind and Human NatureÃ Ã It is often heard: Nobody is Perfect. This phrase is often used as a rationalization of foolish human mistakes that could have been prevented.Ã However, this statement has a much more profound significance. It contains an important lesson that guides or rather should guide people through life.Ã By admitting that nobody is perfect, the individual demonstrates a deeper understanding of the human nature and inner self. This knowledge isRead MoreEssay on HUMAN BEINGS AND NATURE DURING THE REVOLUTION OF THE MIND3395 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesHUMAN BEINGS AND NATURE DURING THE REVOLUTION OF THE MIND Enlightenment is mans release from his self-incurred tutelage. Tutelage is mans inability to make use of his understanding without direction from another. Self-incurred is this tutelage when its cause lies not in lack of reason but in lack of resolution and courage to use it without direction from another. Dare to Know! Have courage to use your own reason!- that is the motto of enlightenment. -Immanuel Kant, 1784 (1) From theRead MoreThe Human Mind As An Element Of Human Nature By Bernard Le Bovier De Fontenelle1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCuriosity is implanted in the human mind as it is an element of human nature. The thirst for answers and explanations drive the human mind to reason and deliberate in order to discover an understanding of life itself. It emanates inherently within the brain to solve a puzzle and in return, feel a sense of peace. Philosophers and scientists dedicate their entire lives to solve mysterious questions of the unknown. Throughout the development of distinctive theories, they build on each other to solidifyRead MoreThe concept of human nature focuses on the distinctive natural characteristics of humans, namely1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages The concept of human nature focuses on the distinctive natural characteristics of humans, namely the ways we feel, think and act, regardless of external forces as well as influences. Within the study and discipline of Philosophy, this fun damental nature of humans and our existence is scrutinized. Philosophy involves a continuous search and lookout for an accurate understanding of the underlying traits of humankind that are deemed to be common among all humans. Starting with the ancient philosophersRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem Mont Blanc 912 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPercy Shelley opens his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Mont BlancÃ¢â¬ by noting how imperative the human mind is in regard to nature. The first few lines establish a relation that is essential to all life. With these lines alone, Shelley is pulling from many of the inclinations made by William Wordsworth in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Tintern AbbeyÃ¢â¬ . There is however an expansion made on WordsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s affections toward nature and its aweing power; while Shelley agrees that there is only a small amount of those who can truly grasp the full intentionRead MoreSocial Determinism And Its Impact On Society Essay1674 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophers have attempted to define human nature for centuries, each coming up with a radically different idea of what makes us human. These determinists relate outside events or forces as the reason behind our actions. Our cognitive abilities separate us from beasts, however we are highly influential animals unconsciously and subconsciously. Social determinism has distinctly shaped mankind over time with a high degree of influence on our minds. 1. Historical Determinism Fredrick HegelÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophy
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
MKTG 390, Exam 3 1. Marketers often mislead consumers by misrepresenting marketing research findings in ads and sales presentations. What are six ways in which they do this? (1). We will write a custom essay sample on Mktg 390 Exam 3 Study Guide or any similar topic only for you Order Now Incomplete or misleading reporting of survey or product testing results; (2). Reporting only the percentage of survey respondents answering in a given way (for example, Ã¢â¬Å"55% of those surveyed saidÃ¢â¬ ¦. Ã¢â¬ ) but not the absolute numbers or the sample size; (3). Misleading specification of the competitors tested in reported comparative tests; (4). Using survey techniques that confuse respondents or bias their answers, but not revealing the questions and interview procedure. Sometimes corporate researchers intentionally design the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product testing and marketing research studies so as to generate deceptive findings. (1). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against a comparison during theta is well known not to work well. (2). Testing the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug against too low a dose of the comparison product, to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"more effectiveÃ¢â¬ , or against too high a dose of the comparison product to make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug appear Ã¢â¬Å"less toxicÃ¢â¬ . 3). Reporting only that part of a product trial that favors the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s drug, and hiding the rest of the results. (4). Funding many different studies about the same product but reporting only the one or two that make the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product look desirable. 1) Tell lies about risks or limitations 2) Omit discl osing risks or limitations entirely 3) Bury or conceal disclosures among other information 4) Report only % of respondents who answer in a specific way 5) Incomplete reporting of testing results 6) Using survey techniques that confuse respondents 2. Explain the Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ method for determining sample size. In any sample size determination problem, consideration must be given to the number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and about which statistical inferences must be made. For example, a researcher might decide that a sample of 400 is quite adequate overall. However, if male and female respondents must be analyzed separately and the sample is expected to be 50 percent male and 50 percent female, then the expected sample size for each subgroup is only 200. Is this number adequate for making the desired statistical inferences about the characteristics of the two groups? If the results are to be analyzed by both sex and age, the problem gets even more complicated. Assume that it is important to analyze four subgroups of the total sample: men under 35, men 35 and over, women under 35, and women 35 and over. If each group is expected to make up about 25 percent of the total sample, a sample of 400 will include only 100 respondents in each subgroup. The problem is that as sample size gets smaller, sampling error gets larger, and it becomes more difficult to tell whether an observed difference between two groups is a real difference or simply a reflection ofsampling error. Other things being equal, the larger the number of subgroups to be analyzed, the larger the required total sample size. It has been suggested that a sample should provide, at a minimum, 100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. Number of Subgroups to Be Analyzed . SubgroupsÃ¢â¬âthe number and anticipated size of various subgroups of the total sample that must be analyzed and statistical inferences must be made should be seriously considered. b. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âdependent on the number of subgroups to be analyzedÃ¢â¬âthe more needed the larger the required total sample size. c. Minimum NeedsÃ¢â¬â100 or more respondents in each major subgroup and 20 to 50 respondents in each of the less important subgroups. 3. You need to hire a marketing research firm to work with you on a new product research project. Five factors you might consider in choosing among different research firms are the price they charge, their apparent honesty, their punctuality (ability to meet deadlines on a project), their flexibility, and their capacity to deliver the specified work. What are five other important factors for you to consider in making your choice? Briefly explain why each of these five factors is important. Maintains client confidentiality Provide high-quality output Responsive to the clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ needs High quality-control standards Customer oriented in interaction with clients Keep clients informed throughout a project (1). Maintains client confidentiality (2). Delivers against project specifications (3). Provides high-quality output (4). Is responsive to the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs (5). Has high quality-control standards (6). Is customer oriented in interactions with client (7). Keeps the client informed throughout a project 4. What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s chosen research method and data collection process can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to meet a deadline for completing a research project? What two aspects of a research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s internal management operations can decrease the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project? 1) A discussion of questionnaires would not be complete without mentioning their impact on costs and profitability. Factors affecting costs and profits include overestimating, overbidding, incidence rate, roadblocks to completed interviews, and premature interview terminations. (2) Generally research firms do not have design and analyti cal capabilities. This means that their clients may, on occasion, need to seek other providers to meet their fully service needs. It also could decrease the firmsÃ¢â¬â¢ capacity to meet key deadlines for a research project. not pretty sure yet) 5. A research firmÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"flexibilityÃ¢â¬ is an important factor for clients to consider in deciding whether to hire that firm. Why is flexibility important and what information would you seek to learn about a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s flexibility? Flexibility is important to see how a firm reacts in a crisis-management situation. Unexpected happenings occur often and flexibility shows how a firm will react to these situations. Flexibility also refers to a firmÃ¢â¬â¢s control over internal operations, and how they handle personnel issues, such as personnel turnover. . Research management has eight important goals. Three of these are (a) excellent communication, (b) staff development and retention, and (c) cost management. What are four ot her goals in successful research management? Briefly explain these four goals. (1). Organizing the supplier firm: large suppliers have separate departments for sampling, questionnaire programming, field, coding, tabulation, statistics, and sales? Even the client service staff may be separate from those who manage projects and write questionnaires and reports. Each of these departments has a head who is expert in the functions of that department and manages work assignments within the department. So in response to problems like this, some companies are organizing by teams. (2). Data Quality Management: this is the most important objective of the research management. Marketing research managers can help assure high-quality data by having policies and procedures in place to minimize source of error. Marketing researchers must not only attempt to minimize error, but must also do a better job of explaining the term margin error. Also, managers must have in place procedures to ensure the careful proofing of all text, chart, and graphs in written reports and other communications provided to the clients. (3). Time management:it is very important becasue clients often have a specified time schedule that they must meet. Two problems that can play havoc with time schedules are inaccuracies in estimates of the incidence rate and the interview length. The project manager must have early information regarding whether or not a project can be completed on time. Time management requires that systems be put in place to inform management as to whether or not the project is on schedule. (4). Client Profitability Management: while marketing research departments may be able to focus on doing Ã¢â¬Å"on-demandÃ¢â¬ projects for internal clients, marketing research suppliers have to think about profitability. Customer Research Incorporated (CRI) divided its clients into four categories based on the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s perceived value to CRIÃ¢â¬â¢s bottom line. CRI spent too much time and too many valuable employee resources on too many unprofitable customers. (5). Outsourcing:One way that research firms are cutting costs is outsourcing. The term outsourcing as used in this text is having personnel in another country perform some, or all, of the functions involved in a marketing research project. When a research firm sets up a wholly-owned foreign subsidiary, it is called captive outsourcing. Simple outsourcing is where a domestic research company enters into a relationship with a foreign company that provides a variety of marketing research functions. For example, Cross-Tab Services of Mumbai, India, offers online survey programming, data processing, data analysis, and other services. Other services that are beginning to be outsourced are data management and panel management. A number of issues need to be considered when one is outsourcing, as shown in Exhibit 15. 10. India is most likely the world leader in marketing research outsourcing firms. Over 110 marketing research outsourcing firms in India (noncaptive) employ over 9,000 people. The countryÃ¢â¬â¢s revenues Research management has seven important goals beyond excellent communication: building an effective organization, assurance of data quality, adherence to time schedules, cost control, client profitability management, and staff management and development. ) Building an effective organizationÃ¢â¬âhaving an organization in which people work in their areas of highest strength (technical people doing tech stuff and charismatic people doing customer service activities) 2) Assurance of data qualityÃ¢â¬âto ensure the integrity of the data produced 3) Adherence to time schedules (time management)Ã¢â¬â keep the project on schedule with specific time schedules the client has specified 4) Client profitability managementÃ¢â¬âprojects for clients are a priority but the bottom line is the most important; make sure the clients youÃ¢â¬â¢re serving are maximizing profitability and not stretching yourself too thin. . To retain key staff members, a research firm can help them develop their professional skills and meet their goals. What are three specific things a research supply firm can do to help retain key marketing research staff members, beyond paying them well? a. Conduct regular performance reviews that give continuing feedback on a job well doneÃ¢â¬âor offer ways to improve. Many staff members think their bosses play favorites during performance reviews. So department heads try to use clear performance criteria for each position and offer objective appraisals for everyone. . Offer public recognition for great work. Some groups mention great work during staff meetings; post c lient comments on a Ã¢â¬Å"wall of fameÃ¢â¬ in the department; have bosses send personal letters to staff members at home, praising their work; hold pizza parties for teams that have performed Ã¢â¬Å"above and beyondÃ¢â¬ ; or simply have the head of the department stop by a staff memberÃ¢â¬â¢s office to offer congratulations and thanks. c. Give differential pay raises that recognize superior performance. While across theboard, uniform pay increases are often used (because they are the easiest to administer), they do not recognize the high performersÃ¢â¬âand they allow the lower performers to believe they are doing adequate work. d. Vary the work. In order to keep everyone interested, some research groups identify one-off projects and then allow staff members to volunteer for them. Examples of special projects could include a project that will feed into the firmÃ¢â¬â¢s strategic plans, formation of a high-visibility cross-functional team, or a project that uses a new technique or addresses an unusually interesting topic. 8. What is Ã¢â¬Å"stratified samplingÃ¢â¬ ? What are the three steps involved in implementing a stratified sample? A stratified sampling procedure divides a population by a specific strata (some demographic characteristic pertinent to the population of interest) then people are chosen randomly within each stratum, usually proportionate to the total number of people in each stratum. Stratified samples are probability samples that are distinguished by the following procedural steps: (1). The original, or parent, population is divided into two or more mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets (for example, male and female). (2). Simple random samples of elements from the two or more subsets are chosen independently of each other. Three steps are involved in implementing a properly stratified sample: (1). Identify salient (important) demographic or classification factors. Factors that are correlated with the behavior of interest. For example, there may be reason to believe that men and women have different average consumption rates of a particular product. To use gender as a basis for meaningful stratifi cation, the researcher must be able to show with actual data that there are significant differences in the consumption levels of men and women. In this manner, various salient factors are identifi ed. Research indicates that, as a general rule, after the six most important factors have been identifi ed, the identification of additional salient factors adds little in the way of increased sampling efficiency. (2). Determine what proportions of the population fall into the various subgroups under each stratum (for example, if gender has been determined to be a salient factor, determine what proportion of the population is male and what proportion is female). Using these proportions, the researcher can determine how many respondents are required from each subgroup. However, before a final determination is made, a decision must be made as to whether to use proportional allocation or disproportional, or optimal, allocation. (3). Select separate simple random samples from each stratum. This process is implemented somewhat differently than traditional simple random sampling. Assume that the stratified sampling plan requires that 240 women and 160 men be interviewed. The researcher will sample from the total population and keep track of the number of men and women interviewed. At some point in the process, when 240 women and 127 men have been interviewed, the researcher will interview only men until the target of 160 men is reached. In this manner, the process generates a sample in which the proportion of men and women conforms to the allocation scheme derived in step 2. Stratified samples are not used as often as one might expect in marketing research. The reason is that the information necessary to properly stratify the sample is usually not available in advance. Stratification cannot be based on guesses or hunches but must be based on hard data regarding the characteristics of the population and the relationship between these characteristics and the behavior under investigation. Stratified samples are frequently used in political polling and media audience research. In those areas, the researcher is more likely to have the information necessary to implement the stratification process. 9. The American Marketing AssociationÃ¢â¬â¢s Code of Professional Ethics cites data collection principles that all marketing research firms should follow. One is Ã¢â¬Å"treat the respondent with respect and do not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or attitude on any issue through direct or indirect attempts, including the framing of questions. Ã¢â¬ What are six other data collection principles that are cited in the AMA Code? Explain each of these briefly. (2). will conduct themselves in a professional manner and ensure privacy and confidentiality. (3). will ensure that all formulas used during bidding and reporting during the data collection process conform with the MRA/Council of American Survey Research Organizations (CASRO) Incidence Guidelines. 4). will make factually correct statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made during the interview to respondents, whether verbal or written (5). will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate in the research when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without the use of their name or address (e. g. , because of the size of the populatio n being sampled). (6). will not use information to identify respondents without the permission of the respondent except to those who check the data or are involved in processing the data. If such permission is given, the interviewer must record it, or a respondent must do so, during all Internet studies, at the time the permission is secured. (7). will adhere to and follow these principles when conducting online research: Ã ¦ RespondentsÃ¢â¬â¢ rights to anonymity must be safeguarded. Ã ¦ Unsolicited e-mail must not be sent to those requesting not to receive any further e-mail. Ã ¦ Researchers interviewing minors must adhere to the ChildrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA). Ã ¦ Before collecting, using, or disclosing personal information from a child, the researcher must obtain verifiable parental consent from the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parent. 8). for Internet research, will not use any data in any way contrary to the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s published privacy statement without permission from the respondent. (9). will respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to cooperate at any stage of the study and will not use any procedure or technique to coerce or imply that cooperation is obligatory. (10)will obtain and document respondent consent when it is known that the personally identifiable information of the respondent may be passed by audio, video, or Interactive Voice Response to a third party for legal or other purposes. 11). will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing children 13 years of age or younger. Prior to obtaining permission, the interviewer should divulge the subject matter, length of interview, and other special tasks that may be required of the respondent. (12). will ensure that all interviewers comply with any laws or regulations that may be applicable when contacting or communicating to any minor (18 years old or younger) regardless of the technology or methodology utilized. (13). ill not reveal any information that could be used to identify clients without their written authorization. (14). will ensure that companies, their employees, and subcontractors involved in the data collection process adhere to reasonable precautions so that multiple surveys are not conducted at the same time with a specific respondent without explicit permission from the sponsoring company or companies. (15). will consider all research materials provided by the client or generated as a result of materials provided by the client to be the property of the client. These materials will not be disseminated or disposed of without the verbal or written permission of the client. (16). will, as time and availability permit, give their client the opportunity to monitor studies in progress to ensure research quality. (17). will not represent a nonresearch activity to be opinion and marketing research, such as: Ã ¦ the compilation of lists, registers, or data banks of names and addresses for any nonresearch purposes (e. g. , canvassing or fund raising). Ã ¦ industrial, commercial, or any other form of espionage. Ã ¦ the acquisition of information for use by credit rating services or similar organizations. sales or promotional approaches to the respondent. Ã ¦ the collection of debts. Companies engaged in data collection: (1) Will treat the respondent and the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions or beliefs with respect, and not influence a respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion or belief on any issue through direct or indirect behavior, including the framing of questi ons or verbal or non-verbal reactions to what a respondent says. (2) Will ensure privacy and confidentiality (3) Will ensure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. , purpose, tasks, type of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. (4) Will make truthful statements to secure cooperation and will honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents, verbal or written (5) Will explain, promise and respect the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer at any stage of the study, and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. (6) Will give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using name or address (e. . , a small population of respondents). (7) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. (8) Will disclose the studyÃ¢â¬â¢s subject matter, length of interview, and special tasks required of before participation begins, to parents and guardians of children under 13. (9) Will not misrepresent as opinion research or marketing research any non-research activity. (10)Will not disclose to respondents any information that could identify a client without the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s permission. ) Ensure privacy and confidentiality. 2) Assure that respondents are given information needed for Ã¢â¬Å"informed consentÃ¢â¬ to participate, e. g. , purpose, tasks, types of questions, length, right to refuse/withdraw. 3) Make truthful statements to secure cooperation and honor promises made before and during the interview to respondents verbal or written. 4) Explain and promise respect of the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s right to withdraw or refuse to answer any stage of the study and will not try to coerce or to imply that cooperation and completion is obligatory. ) Give respondents the opportunity to refuse to participate when there is a possibility they may be identifiable even without using their name or address. 6) Will obtain permission and document consent of a parent, legal guardian, or responsible guardian before interviewing any person under 13 years old. 10. Snowball sampling is one method for doing Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . Explain how and why Ã¢â¬Å"snowball samplingÃ¢â¬ is done. How? In snowball samples, sampling procedures are used to select additional respondents on the basis of referrals from initial respondents. This procedure is used to sample from low-incidence or rare populationsÃ¢â¬âthat is, populations that make up a very small percentage of the total population. The costs of finding members of these rare populations may be so great that the researcher is forced to use a technique such as snowball sampling. For example, suppose an insurance company needed to obtain a national sample of individuals who have switched from the indemnity form of healthcare coverage to a health maintenance organization in the past 6 months. It would be necessary to sample a very large number of consumers to identify 1,000 that fall into this population. It would be far more economical to obtain an initial sample of 200 people from the population of interest and have each of them provide the names of an average of four other people to complete the sample of 1,000. Why? The main advantage of snowball sampling is a dramatic reduction in search costs. However, this advantage comes at the expense of sample quality. The total sample is likely to be biased because the individuals whose names were obtained from those sampled in the initial phase are likely to be very similar to those initially sampled. As a result, the sample may not be a good cross section of the total population. There is general agreement that some limits should be placed on the number of respondents obtained through referrals, although there are no specific rules regarding what these limits should be. This approach may also be hampered by the fact that respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. Snowball SamplingÃ¢â¬âinvolves the selection of additional respondents on the basis of referrals from the initial respondents. a. Main advantageÃ¢â¬â the dramatic reduction in search costs. b. DisadvantageÃ¢â¬âreduction in sample quality. Snowball sampling procedures ask respondents to recommend other individuals who share the characteristic of interest. If you are looking for individuals who have been a victim of a particular crime, and you know there is a victim support network in the area, you might use this technique. There may be no other way to obtain the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s names. The danger associated with this type of sample is, of course, the bias that may occur because of the method. The sample may not be a good cross section, also respondents may be reluctant to give referrals. 1. What are the first five steps in the questionnaire design process? Explain briefly what each step involves. 1. Determine survey objectives, resources, and constraints: know objective and information want to get out of the survey 2. Determine the data collection method: Way to gather info such as internet, phone ectÃ¢â¬ ¦ 3. Determine the question response format: open ended, yes/n o, multiple choice (check al that apply to you, age/ethnicity questions), scaled-response questions 4. Decide on the question wording: clear, avoids bias, willingness to answer 5. Establish questionnaire flow and layout: screening questions to find people qualified for the survey, first question brings in interest, capitalize important things Step 1: Determine Survey Objectives, Resources, and Constraints The research process often begins when a marketing manager, brand manager, or new product development specialist has a need for decision-making information that is not available. a. Survey objectivesÃ¢â¬âshould be spelled out as clearly and precise as possible, as well as the available resources and budget and other constraints. Step 2: Determine the Data-Collection Method Given the variety of ways in which survey data can be gathered, such as via the Internet, telephone, mail, or self-administration, the research method will have an impact on questionnaire design. An in-person interview in a mall will have constraints (such as a time limitation) not encountered with an Internet questionnaire. A self-administered questionnaire must be explicit and is usually rather short; because no interviewer will be present, respondents will not have the opportunity to clarify a question. A telephone interview may require a rich verbal description of a concept to make certain the respondent understands the idea being discussed. In contrast, an Internet survey can show the respondent a picture or video or demonstrate a concept. Step 3: Determine the Question Response Format Once the data-collection method has been determined, a decision must be made regarding the types of questions to be used in the survey. Three major types of questions are used in marketing research: open-ended, closed-ended, and scaled-response questions. Step 4: Decide on the the Question Wording 1). Make Sure the Wording Is Clear a. The questions must be stated so that it means the same thing to all respondents. b. Clarity is the goal. The questionnaire designer must use terminology native to the target respondent group and not use research jargon. It should custom-tailor the wording to the target respondent group. c. State the purpose of the survey. d. Avoid double-barreled questionsÃ¢â¬âtwo q uestions in one. (2). Avoid Biasing the Respondent a. Leading questions. b. Biased wording of the question. c. Sponsor identification early in the interviewing process. (3). Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Ability to Answer the Questions a. A respondent may have never acquired the information to answer the question. b. A respondent may have forgotten details. c. To avoid this problem, keep the referenced time periods short. (4). Consider the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Willingness to Answer the Question. a. Embarrassing topic must be phrased in a careful manner to minimize measurement error. b. Ask the question in the third person. c. Ask about Ã¢â¬Å"most peopleÃ¢â¬ . d. Using counterbiasing statements techniqueÃ¢â¬âstate that the behavior or attitude is not unusual prior to asking the question. Step 5: Establish Questionnaire Flow and Layout (1). Use Screening Questions to Identify Qualified Respondents (2). Begin with a Question That Gets the RespondentÃ¢â¬â¢s Interest (3). Ask General Questions First (4). Ask Questions That Require Ã¢â¬Å"WorkÃ¢â¬ in the Middle (5). Insert Ã¢â¬Å"PromptersÃ¢â¬ at Strategic Points (6). Position Sensitive, Threatening, and Demographic Questions at the End (7). Allow Plenty of Space for Open-Ended Responses (8). Put Instructions in Capital Letters (9). Use a Proper Introduction and Closing 12. Step 6 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Evaluate the questionnaireÃ¢â¬ . What are three key issues in evaluating a draft of the questionnaire? (1) Is the Question Necessary? Perhaps the most important criterion for this phase of questionnaire development is the necessity for a given question. Sometimes researchers and brand managers want to ask questions because Ã¢â¬Å"they were on the last survey we did like thisÃ¢â¬ or because Ã¢â¬Å"it would be nice to know. Ã¢â¬ Excessive numbers of demographic questions are very common. Asking for education data, numbers of children in multiple age categories, and extensive demographics on the spouse simply is not warranted by the nature of many studies. Each question must serve a purpose. Unless it is a screener, an interest generator, or a required transition, it must be directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey. Any question that fails to satisfy at least one of these criteria should be omitted. (2) Is the Questionnaire Too Long? At this point, the researcher should role-play the survey, with volunteers acting as respondents. Although there is no magic number of interactions, the length of time it takes to complete the questionnaire should be averaged over a minimum of five trials. Any questionnaire to be administered in a mall or over the telephone should be a candidate for cutting if it averages longer than 20 minutes. Sometimes mall-intercept interviews can run slightly longer if an incentive is provided to the respondent. Most Internet surveys should take less than 15 minutes to complete. Common incentives are movie tickets, pen and pencil sets, and cash or checks. The use of incentives often actually lowers survey costs because response rates increase and terminations during the interview decrease. If checks are given out instead of cash, the canceled checks can be used to create a list of survey participants for follow-up purposes. A technique that can reduce the length of questionnaires is called a split-questionnaire design. It can be used when the questionnaire is long and the sample size is large. The questionnaire is split into one core component (such as demographics, usage patterns, and psychographics) and a number of subcomponents. Respondents complete the core component plus a randomly assigned subcomponent. (3) Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? The researcher must make certain that the questionnaire contains sufficient numbers and types of questions to meet the decision-making needs of management. A suggested procedure is to carefully review the written objectives for the research project and then write each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. For example, question 1 applies to objective 3, question 2 to objective 2, and so forth. If a question cannot be tied to an objective, the researcher should determine whether the list of objectives is complete. If the list is complete, the question should be omitted. If the researcher finds an objective with no questions listed beside it, appropriate questions should be added. Tips for writing a good questionnaire are provided in the Practicing Marketing Research feature on page 263. (1). Is the Question Necessary? a. Each question must serve a purpose. b. Is it directly and explicitly related to the stated objectives of the particular survey? (2). Is the Questionnaire Too Long? a. Mall or telephone administered questionnaires should be limited to 20 minutes. b. Internet surveys should be less than 15 minutes. . Incentives can lower the cost of surveys because the response rates increase and terminations decrease. (3). Will the Questions Provide the Information Needed to Accomplish the Research Objectives? a. Review the written objectives for the research projectÃ¢â¬âwrite each question number next to the objective that the particular question will address. b. If the question cannot be t ied to an objectiveÃ¢â¬âdetermine if the list of objectives is complete. If complete, eliminate the question. c. If an objective has no questions, then appropriate questions should be added. 13. Compare Ã¢â¬Å"probability samplingÃ¢â¬ to Ã¢â¬Å"non-probability samplingÃ¢â¬ . What is probability sampling? What is non-probability sampling? Why is non-probability sampling used more often than probability sampling in actual marketing research projects? Probability samples are selected in such a way that every element of the population has a known, nonzero likelihood of selection. Simple random sampling is the best known and most widely used probability sampling method. With probability sampling, the researcher must closely adhere to precise selection procedures that avoid arbitrary or biased selection of sample elements. When these procedures are followed strictly, the laws of probability hold, allowing calculation of the extent to which a sample value can be expected to differ from a population value. This difference is referred to as sampling error. The debate continues regarding whether online panels produce probability samples. Nonprobability samples are those in which specific elements from the population have been selected in a nonrandom manner. Nonrandomness results when population elements are selected on the basis of convenienceÃ¢â¬âbecause they are easy or inexpensive to reach. Purposeful nonrandomness occurs when a sampling plan systematically excludes or over represents certain subsets of the population. For example, if a sample designed to solicit the opinions of all women over the age of 18 were based on a telephone survey conducted during the day on weekdays, it would systematically exclude working women. See the Practicing Marketing Research feature above. On the other hand, probability samples have a number of disadvantages, the most important of which is that they are usually more expensive than nonprobability samples of the same size. The rules for selection increase interviewing costs and professional time spent in designing and executing the sample design. Non-probability sampling VS Probability sampling Disadvantages of Probability Samples a) More expensive than nonprobability samples b) Take more time and money to design and execute. Advantages of Nonprobability Samples a) Cost less than probability samples. b) Can be conducted more quickly than probability samples. c) Are reasonably representative if executed in a reasonable manner. , 14. Step 8 in the questionnaire design process is Ã¢â¬Å"Pretest and ReviseÃ¢â¬ . a) How do you do a pretest a first-draft of a questionnaire? (b) Under what conditions can this step be skipped? (a) A pretest is done by the interviewers who will be working on the job and is administered to target respondents for the study. The pretest should be conducted in the same mode as the final interview. In a pretest, researchers look for misinterpretations by respondents, poor skip pat terns, additional alternatives for pre-coded and closed-ended questions and general respondent reaction to the interview. Interviewers want find out if respondents were confused at all during the interview. b) There are NO reasons to not pre-test! No survey should be conducted without a pretest. 15. In a well-organized questionnaire, there is a logical flow of questions. The first questions are called Ã¢â¬Å"ScreenersÃ¢â¬ . After Screeners are asked, what types of questions are asked in the next four sections of the questionnaire, in correct order? 16. In class and a handout, we discussed a method called Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ that companies can use to understand how people may react to a complex innovative product (e. g. , new self-driving car; new medical diagnostic system) when it is marketed sometime in the future. i) Explain the goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method; (ii) Explain how to do the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method Ã¢â¬â what are its key features? (i) The goals of the Ã¢â¬Å"Information AccelerationÃ¢â¬ method (1)Test how exposure to an overall set of product-related messages influences consumer attitude toward the product, especially when test ads are mingled with non-marketing messages from other sources, eg, news articles, journals, competing ads, etc (2)Test how exposure to a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s overall set of marketing materials affect consumers beliefs and impressions. For example, does exposure to the assorted marketing messages for a product launch (TV ads, magazine ads; mailed brochures; point-of Ã¢â¬âpurchase information; sales presentations; packaging) confuse consumers or mislead them about some aspect of the product, eg, risks, limitations, the key usage benefits? (ii)How: IA places consumers in a Ã¢â¬Å"virtualÃ¢â¬ learning and decision making environment, and stimulates (via computer) a set of information sources potentially available to a consumer, including advertising; news articles; showroom or store visits; and world-of-mouth opinions from other consumers and product experts. The method Ã¢â¬Å"acceleratesÃ¢â¬ the flows of information consumers may encounter over a long time period in the future. Key features: (1) Realistic simulation of a complex media and message environment that consumers may face in the future when deciding about a new innovation, (2) Vivid and concrete renditions of the messages and the message-exposure Stimulations (3) Uses computer-interactive technology to decrease participant fatigue. (4) Respondent have access to a full assortment of information. They can choose which to look at or ignore; the order of their information search; the time they spend on the sources of information they consult (5) But, the marketer controls the overall time available for the search, as incentive to consumers to set priorities as they search (6) Can do Ã¢â¬Å"after-only with control groupÃ¢â¬ experiments that vary product features. Product-related marketing materials, types of messages from non-marketing sources 17. In addition to Ã¢â¬Å"number of subgroupsÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"traditional statistical methodsÃ¢â¬ , what are (1). Budget Available The sample size for a project is often determined by the budget available. The budget brand manager have, after deducting of other project cost, the amount remaining determines the size of the sample that can be surveyed. If the dollars available will not produced an adequate sample size, then management must make a decision:either additional funds must be found or the project should be canceled. Financial constrains challenge the researcher to develop research designs that will generate data of adequate quality for decision making purchases at low cost. This approaches forces the researcher to explore alternative data-collection approaches and to carefully consider the value of information in relations to its cost. (2). Rule of Thumb Potential clients may specify in the RFP about the sample size they want. Sometimes, this is number based on desired sampling error. In other cases, it is based on nothing more than past experience. The justification for the specific sample size may boil down to a Ã¢â¬Å"gut feelingÃ¢â¬ that a particular sample size is necessary or appropriate. If the researcher determine that the sample size requested is not adequate to support the objectives of the proposed research, then she or he has a professional responsibility to present arguement for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. (1). Budget Available a. Sample SizeÃ¢â¬âfor a project often is determined by the budget available. Sample size, therefore, is often determined backward. b. Alternative Data Collection ApproachesÃ¢â¬âbudget available approach forces the research to explore and consider the value of information in relation to its cost. 2). Rules of Thumb a. Potential clients may specify they want a sample of a specific size. b. Sometimes based on some consideration of sampling error, sometimes based on past experience and sample sizes used for similar studies in the past. c. If that the sample size requested is not adequate, the researcher has a professional responsibility to present arguments for a larger sample size to the client and let the client make the final decision. 18. Why is it so important for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality about all aspects of its clientsÃ¢â¬â¢ projects? Why is it sometimes difficult for a marketing research firm to maintain high confidentiality? Because participants of research projects share valuable and sometimes sensitive information with the researcher, and they trust that the researcher will ensure that their identity is protected. It is imperative that no one but the researchers coordinating and conducting the interviews or focus groups knows the names of participants. No one other than the researchers should have access to the responses from individual participants. It is critical that no one but the necessary researchers have the ability to match the names of individuals to their responses. It is hard to maintain confidentiality because sometimes companies share information about customers with partners and affiliates. Also, some companies sell information they have gathered on customers to outside companies. 19. What steps should be taken to assure that the response data from each respondent in a survey are kept confidential? (1) Develop a code sheet, listing the participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ names with a code next to each name, assigned by the researcher, which uniquely identifies each respondent. This code, not the respondentÃ¢â¬â¢s name, will be written on the form for talking interview notes or the questionnaire itself. (2) Keep the code sheet in a secure location so that people other than the researchers do not have access to it. (3) Keep participantsÃ¢â¬â¢ responses in a secure location, separate from the code sheet, to protect the identity of individuals participating in study. (4)Researchers should be trained to explain these procedures for maintaining confidentiality to all respondents before they start participation. 20. In deciding whether or not to hire a specific marketing research firm, why it is important to learn about the other new clients and projects that the firm has taken on recently? It is important to know if we are their prior client compared to other clients, so we could have the priority on technical team, key personals and other important resources to accomplish the project. Besides that, itÃ¢â¬â¢s important because if a client is a big account for the firm, will the firm be likely to ask difficult or complex questions and not be a Ã¢â¬Å"yes-man? And if the client is small, will they still be valuable to the firm or will they be ignored? Also, if a firm has had a high client turnover rate, both recent gains and losses, this could be a red flag. If theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve lost a lot of clients it could signal poor work or management, but on the flip side if theyÃ¢â¬â¢ve gained a lot, it may mean the firm will pay less attention to each individual client. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s important to look at p ast projects as well to determine if a firm can actually do the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s work. How to cite Mktg 390 Exam 3 Study Guide, Papers
Wednesday, April 29, 2020
Influences On Government Our governmental system is influenced by a number of "inputs" and factors that shape the outcome of political movements and decisions. These "inputs" include public pinions, political parties, interest groups, and the influence of mass media. They influence our government directly as well as indirectly. Not to mention, that our government also uses these "inputs" for its own benefit. The main issue that forms governmental decisions in a democracy is of course the public opinion. In order to be eligible to run for an office in our governmental system, one must be elected by the people or a representative thereof, and to achieve this task one must listen to and obey the public's opinion. Therefore, the theory of democracy is most purely applied through election on behalf of the public opinion. Another important factor in our system of government are of course our political parties. Parties enable the citizen living in a democratic society to establish a connection to governmental action and lead policy-making to his benefit or liking. Furthermore, a citizen can participate in society quite easily, since 2 party platforms which clearly indicate a parties goals and preferences. However, this democratic ideal does not always prevail. Parties can be influenced or even manipulated by people who contribute great amounts of funds to the party to have their own personal political wishes fulfilled which do not necessarily have to benefit society as a whole (power elite theory). Interest groups account for an additional 'mover' in Washington. This political devise provides a supplement to our citizens broad area of interests. Since the American People can only choose between two main parties. Therefore, certain issues might not come to political debate. Interest groups fill this gap and thus withhold the theory of democracy. Yet, 'Big Business' has also found this devise to help fulfill its political needs. Once again politics is influenced by a small amount of citizens, that own about two thirds of our nations worth. Interest groups have grown more influential over the years and created a pluralistic society, in which people's everyday issues and interests are brought to the attention of our governmental system. However, since there is a rapid growth in interest groups and political action committees, the competition among groups might become so extensive that demands on politicians might be to high and hence, our system would come to a halt or gridlock and nothing would be achieved anymore. Last but not least mass media provide another 'input' to our system of government. The media provide the people with information they need to be able 3 to make sensible political decisions. In formation on election debates current poles help the public to stay in touch with the policy-makers in Washington.